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Beans

Updated on June 6, 2010

The edible seeds of various leguminous plants are commonly called beans. The species that has probably been cultivated longest is Vicia faba, the broad bean, which is thought to have originated in South West Asia. It is also known as the Windsor, or horse, bean and is extensively grown in Europe for human consumption and fodder. The pods grow up to 20 cm in length and the seeds are flat and broad. Several varieties are grown and may be obtained fresh, frozen, dried, canned or crushed (for stock feed). The genus Phaseolus is more widely grown throughout the world and includes kidney beans, string and lima beans, mung beans, teparies and runners.

Throughout the world, beans are among the most important food crops. They can be dried, ground into flour, canned, or frozen, and they can be stored for long periods without losing their flavor or nutritional value. Because of their high protein content, dried beans are very nutritious and make an excellent substitute for meat. They also contain carbohydrates, vitamin B15 calcium, and phosphorus. Both the pods and seeds of some beans, such as snap beans, are edible, but only the seeds of others, such as lima beans and red kidney beans, are used as food.

Beans are high in carbohydrates and a valuable source of protein, especially in poorer countries. They can be eaten in their immature form as greenbeans and pods or in their mature form as fully grown seeds. Some species are grown as green manure, whereas others are used as green feed for grazing stock. Seeds of some plants are commonly called beans even though they do not belong to the bean family; for example, the coffee bean, the castor bean and the Mexican jumping bean.

Photo by Stephanie Raines
Photo by Stephanie Raines

Cultivation

Bean plants vary in height from low bushy plants to large climbing plants, called pole beans, that twine their stems around poles, trellises, and other supports. In this respect beans differ from peas and some other legumes that cling to supports by threadlike tendrils. Most bean plants have leaflets, which grow in groups of three, and bear clusters of white, yellow, red, or purple flowers that resemble the sweet pea flower. Bean flowers ripen into straight or curved pods containing several seeds.

When both the seeds and pods are to be eaten, the beans are harvested while the pods are immature and the seeds are small. When only the seeds are to be eaten, the pods are harvested while the seeds are plump but still unripe. Navy beans, kidney beans, and other dried beans are picked when the seeds are ripe, but before they have become coarse and hard.

Beans are sown at the end of winter, when the danger of frost is over. They like an open, sunny position and plenty of moisture. For this reason they are usually planted after spring frosts. Some fast-growing beans may be ready for harvesting within 6 weeks. Others, including the lima bean, may need a growing season of 120 to 140 days. Sometimes several crops of the faster-growing kinds are raised in one season. Snap beans intended for human consumption are now being picked by machines, and mature beans are harvested by combines. Bean plants raised for livestock feed are harvested whole.

Beans are subject to attack by several insects, including the bean weevil and beetle, and fungus and virus diseases, such as anthracnose and rust. A certain degree of control is obtained by planting disease-free seeds or known resistant varieties, or by spraying or dusting with pesticides. Crop rotation is another method of controlling some infestations.

Kidney Bean

The most widely cultivated of all beans in the United States and Canada are the kidney beans. Some of the best-known varieties include the common red kidney bean, the speckled pinto bean, the white navy bean, the snap bean, and a yellow variety called the wax bean. Varieties whose dried, hard seeds are eaten are called dry beans.

In the United States the largest producers of red kidney beans are Michigan, New York, and California. Pinto beans are widely cultivated in Colorado and Idaho, and navy beans in Michigan and New York. Most snap beans and wax beans are raised in Florida, New York, Oregon, and Maryland.

Lima Bean

The lima, or sugar, bean may be either a dwarf bush plant or a stout climbing plant that grows 10 feet tall and bears broad, flat green pods with pointed tips. The edible seeds are relatively large and flat, and are usually pale green. Several varieties, called potato lima beans, are cultivated for their small, unusually tender seeds. Most of the lima beans grown in the United States are raised in California.

Broad Bean

The broad bean, which is also called the Windsor bean, horsebean, or English bean, is a hardy leafy plant that grows from 2 to 6 feet tall. Its large, thick pod is usually 2 to 4 inches long, but may be more than 12 inches long in some varieties. Its seeds may be brown, green, purple, or black, and they resemble lima beans in shape and taste. Canada and California are large producers of broad beans.

Ornamental Beans

Although their pods are edible, several species of beans are raised chiefly as ornamental plants, particularly in warmer southern areas of the United States. The best known include the scarlet runner bean, a tall climbing plant with clusters of brilliant-red flowers, and the hyacinth bean, a twining plant that grows up to 20 feet high and bears white or purple flowers.

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    • toknowinfo profile image

      toknowinfo 

      7 years ago

      Thank you for the great education about beans. Beans have so many nutritious qualities. Rated up and useful.

    • fucsia profile image

      fucsia 

      7 years ago

      i love beans! Thanks for these interesting information!

    • soozeqsh profile image

      soozeqsh 

      7 years ago from Boyertown, PA

      Good topic. We planted bush and pole beans in our garden this past summer and have plenty frozen to see us through the winter months. The bush beans produced for weeks and weeks and into the fall. The pole beans produced in more of a burst at the end of the summer since we planted late. I love gardening and beans are one of my favorites, but keeping the bunnies away is the challenge.

    • darkside profile imageAUTHOR

      Glen 

      7 years ago from Australia

      I string beans parboiled and then thrown in a frying pan with some oil and GARLIC! Have some steak, mashed potatoes and those strings beans fried in garlic on the side. Makes an ordinary meal quite fancy on the taste buds.

    • Peggy W profile image

      Peggy Woods 

      7 years ago from Houston, Texas

      Good hub about beans. I love eating fresh green beans picked from a garden. It has been years since I have grown them and so now when I see them in a grocery store, I generally pick out the younger smaller ones as they are so nice and tender.

    • PaperNotes profile image

      PaperNotes 

      7 years ago

      I'm only good at eating beans, though I am not very knowledgeable about them. Thanks for these info.

    • HealthyHanna profile image

      HealthyHanna 

      8 years ago from Utah

      We love Indian food and we eat a lot of beans. Maybe more people will now. It is really a healthy way of eating.

    • DzyMsLizzy profile image

      Liz Elias 

      8 years ago from Oakley, CA

      Great hub! I love most beans, with the emphatic exception of Lima Beans.. UGH!! Too dry and pasty! I notice you left out, possibly because it may come under 'not really a bean,' the Ceci, aka chick pea, aka garbanzo bean. Love to make hummus with those!

    • KoffeeKlatch Gals profile image

      Susan Hazelton 

      8 years ago from Sunny Florida

      Great info about beans. They are definately an important part of a diet. Love the bean category descriptions.

    • LaMamaLoli profile image

      LaMamaLoli 

      8 years ago from London

      I now feel that I will be a bean friend. I think I will print your hub and read it with my son before we choose which ones we are going to grow. Thank you for the info!

    • LeanMan profile image

      Tony 

      8 years ago from At the Gemba

      What a delicious hub, lol...

      I love beans but the side effects are not always appreciated by my wife...

    • susanlang profile image

      susanlang 

      8 years ago

      I eat alot raw pea pods. Love beans!

    • HealthyHanna profile image

      HealthyHanna 

      8 years ago from Utah

      I want to start using more beans in my diet. Thanks for the jump start information.

    • Alison Graham profile image

      Alison Graham 

      8 years ago from UK

      Thanks for an informative hub. Baby broad beans are also delicious cooked in their pods and served in a creamy white sauce - yum!

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