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Gourmet Salt 101

Updated on June 24, 2013

A User's Guide

Salt: a simple, plentiful, sodium based compound, to which we in large measure (pun intended) owe our very existence. Salt helps regulate the fluid balance in our bodies and plays a key role in transferring electrical signals throughout our nervous system. We have flavor receptors on our tongues (taste buds) that are solely dedicated to sensing saltiness in the foods we eat.

Salt has been referenced in all religions and is used in medicine and therapy since the dawn of time. Some of the very first human settlements have been traced back to salt caves, and salt is as culturally significant now as throughout the ages.

So we know that salt is essential to all life here on Earth, but what of its significance as a food additive? In recent years, gourmet salts have been socially trending as the internet and global marketing have revolutionized what is available to the average consumer. Is this just elitist foodie nonsense, or are we actually widening our epicurean palate? Although I briefly discuss a few of its thousands of other uses in our modern culture, my focus here is to explain some the culinary distinctions of gourmet salt and lend you my experience as a chef to find your favorite. Bon Appetite.

Image Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

The Hierarchy of Salt

Do You Know the Differences?

Sometimes a picture is worth five thousand words! Although there are many other variations, I'm sure you'll find your favorites amongst these. I have!


Chart Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

Just a Sprinkle - Some Background Facts You May Find Helpful:

Extraction, Processing and Texture


  1. Extraction

    All salt comes from seawater, either crystallized in rock form or from standing bodies of salt water (live oceans). It is either mined from underground deposits of solid rock (rock salt), or channeled into salt ponds via oceans and bays, evaporated and then processed.


  2. Processing

    Salt is either processed by refinement or left unrefined.

    Refined Salt: Refined salt, similar to refined sugar and flour, is a very pure product, uniform in size, color and quality. It has thousands of applications in industry from metal processing (such as refining aluminum), to oil and gas drilling, rubber manufacturing, and life saving pharmaceutical applications.

    It is of course, also a key ingredient in the food industry. If refining salt has a downside, it is that this process strips away vital nutrients. This is why many food products that are refined are then enriched with vitamins and minerals. If left un-enriched, these highly refined food products contain little to no nutritional value. Since less than 20% of all refined salts are used for culinary purposes, refining keeps its cost to a minimum.

    Table salt and Kosher salt (evaporated salts) are usually extracted from deep within the earth by dissolving rock salt deposits with water and creating an underground solution mine. The brine that is created from this soaking is then pumped to the surface and high-heat treated to evaporate the water. This high-heat processing also removes the impurities and leaves behind highly refined salt: about 99 percent pure sodium chloride or NaCl.

    Unrefined Salt: Unrefined salt is a natural, minimally processed, final product.

    Rock salt, or Halite, is salt that's been mined from underground and crushed into very coarse pieces. It is used as an ice melting agent for driveways and roads. It's added between the walls of ice cream machines and used to make bath salts. With minimal processing, rock salt is also edible. Cut into smaller blocks, it is used as an essential salt lick for animals and for human consumption as is the case with Himalayan salt.

    Sea Salt is also an unrefined salt, but is evaporated out of fresh seawater by the sun and wind. Most fine sea salts are gathered and processed by hand, each with their own distinct regional characteristics. See how it's done in this short video.


  3. Texture

    The methods used for the processing of salt determine its varying textures. The most important 'textural' variables are moisture content and the shape of the crystals. Moisture content in salt varies between almost zero and 13 percent . If a salt is very low in moisture, such as table salt, it more readily absorbs into moist foods. That is, it wicks the moisture out of the food and then dissolves back into the food. Conversely, when the salt's moisture content is high, like a finishing salt, it will not dissolve as quickly on your food or your tongue. Texture is also determined by the shape of the crystal whether it's cubic, flaked, or pyramidal.


Here Are The Two Types

Rock Salt

Rock salt or Halite, is naturally formed NaCl (Sodium Chloride) created from lake beds and oceans that dried up millennia ago. Formed under intense heat and pressure, rock salt lies in-between layers of sedimentary rock and spans for miles. Rock salt ranges widely in color from pink, purple,and blue, to red, orange and yellow; depending on its impurities. These deposits can be mined in one of two ways; using a solution mine, or blasting the rock with explosives.

A solution mine is created by drilling holes and saturating the salt rock with water. This brine is pumped to the surface and then evaporated to form salt crystals. This technique is used when traditional mining is too difficult, time consuming, or unsafe.

Mined traditionally, rock salt is either blasted out of salt mines with explosives or cut and then exploded. When uncut, holes are simply drilled into the salt and filled with explosives and jagged pieces are formed. These pieces are milled or crushed into semi-uniform pieces. Conversely, if the salt rock is cut and then blasted in a specific pattern, large sheets of salt break off. Similar to mining other rocks, these sheets are cut into uniform slabs or blocks or milled into crystals.

Over 90 percent of the salt produced in the United States is rock salt. Worldwide only 6 percent of the rock salt produced is used for food. The preponderance is used to create ice melts and have been simply blasted and then crushed. Himalayan salt is first cut and then blasted. This method allows it to be sold as blocks, plates, and beautiful lamps.

Table Salt

Iodized or Plain

Table salt is the most commonly used of all culinary salts because of its low price point and ease of production. It is mass-produced and inexpensive as opposed to sea salt, which is more labor intensive and may take as long as three years to produce.

Table salt comes either plain (non-iodized) or sprayed with trace amounts of iodine. Iodine was first added to salt during the Great Depression when many people were suffering from malnutrition and developing goiters. The government chose to address this problem by adding iodine to salt because it has a very long shelf life, and could be consumed in reasonably predictable quantities. In modern times however, most people get their recommended daily amount of iodine from the food they eat. Iodine is a trace mineral and a natural part of many diets because it is absorbed by the plants and animals we consume.

Texture: Table salt is usually very fine and absorbs quickly into food and therefore provides little texture itself. As an additive it acts in the same way as other salts in that it reduces water content and aids in preservation.

Flavor: Harshly salty (high sodium content). Some say that because of its purity and lack of minerals (flavor), this salt is bland and somewhat bitter.

Uses: As you probably already know, table salt is sprinkled on meats, vegetables, and fruits, added into baked goods and used to salinate water. I would not use it as a finishing salt on a dessert, although I might preseason food with it for fast even absorption.

Price: The price of table or iodized salt is extremely low. Approximately $.03 per ounce.

Image Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

Paula Deen's Covered Salt Box - Worth It's Salt!

Paula Deen Signature Pantryware Wooden Round 2-Compartment Salt Box
Paula Deen Signature Pantryware Wooden Round 2-Compartment Salt Box

Although there are many styles of salt boxes available, this one, is compartmentalized and ideal for holding both table salt and kosher. In my case, it hold my kosher salt and my finishing salt. It's very handy and made beautifully.

 

Buy Table Salt Online and Save! - Free Delivery is Often Available - Check out Amazon

Kosher Salt

Kosher salt is also an evaporated salt. It is mined and processed in the same way as table salt with the exception of being raked during the evaporation process, to form larger flake crystals.

Its name implies that the salt itself is kosher. It probably is, but not for the reason you might think! With few exceptions, almost all salt is kosher.

To be kosher, a product must be certified by an organization that checks that the product meets kosher standards as defined by Jewish Law. The name of the salt is kosher because it is used to make meats kosher by absorbing blood from the meat's surface. This salt is coarse, so much of it stays on the surface and isn't absorbed. It usually contains no additives, such as iodine and although iodized kosher salt is available it is far less common. Kosher salt is my 'go to', 'all purpose' salt. Personally and professionally, I like its more delicate flavor and texture.

Texture: The thick flakes are larger than the grains of table salt yet not as large as a coarse salt, which usually needs to be ground. This salt adheres well to most any food and imparts only a light crunch if added at the last moment. As many chefs know, the great thing about kosher salt is that with it's a larger grain, you can better sense how much salt is in your own specific pinch.

Flavor: Being less salty in nature and more subtle than table salt, most find this salt purer in taste than iodized as it lacks additives. Some say it's lighter and cleaner tasting, making it ideal for homemade spice blends.

Uses: Kosher salt has grown immensely in popularity and is widely utilized by chefs and home cooks alike. Sprinkle it before and after cooking to season. Cure and pickle meats like beef or fish, or pickle vegetables for canning. Use it as an abrasive to make a flavorful garlic paste. This salt also stands up well to grilling and is wonderful sprinkled on french fries, and all other fried foods. It gives a more briny yet fresh taste to pasta water, poaching water, or any other highly salted cooking liquid. It's great for rimming glasses for cocktails like margaritas. (I like to combine it with lime zest beforehand, to give it interesting color and flavor). One cooking discipline for which I would not suggest using kosher salt, is baking.

Baking is more of a science than cooking and most recipes refer to table salt in their measurements. Since table salt is more dense by volume, the actual measurement of kosher salt as a substitute, must increase by approximately 25 percent. Additionally, If the recipe is low in moisture, this salt may not fully dissolve.

Price: Still very affordable as a general-purpose salt. Approx $0.10 per ounce.

Image Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

Season Like the Professionals... - Use Kosher Salt Instead of Table Salt and Taste the Difference!

Himalayan Pink Salt

Himalayan pink salt is unique because it is hand-mined in Pakistan from deep underground. This salt has been untouched since the Jurassic Era when dinosaurs roamed the earth. It was suddenly covered over by a thick layer of volcanic ash, protecting it from pollution and impurities. Himalayan salt has the highest mineral content of any unrefined salt and its pink hue is due to its high iron content.

This salt has seen a huge rise in popularity. It is prized for both its beautiful variations of color, and health benefits. Like other salts, such as Bamboo salt, it is ionic and purifies the air, and has detoxifying effects on the body. Himalayan pink salt is a wonderful flavor enhancer, and also great for presentation and display.

Himalayan salt slabs present a revolutionary way to add salt to your food. Instead of being sprinkled on your food, food is actually cooked or presented on the salt itself. These slabs look like thick pieces of semi-transparent rock and are stunning! The amazing thing about rock salt slabs is that they can be rinsed, air-dried, and reused over and over without dissolving. Since the salt is naturally anti-microbial, it is completely sanitary. Simply heat up the slab on your grill or in the oven and place food right on top. As it cooks it creates moisture, dissolving some of the salt, which is then absorbed by the food. It can also be chilled in the refrigerator and is most commonly used to present sushi, cheeses, and crudités. It can even be frozen and topped with ice cream. Salt slabs are a wonderful conversation starter and offer a new twist to how we cook and eat.

Texture: This ranges from an intense crunch to a light dusting. I prefer the block form, because Himalayan salt looses color when it is ground and looses its aesthetic appeal. When finely grated, it provides little texture, but great uniform flavor.

Flavor: It is strongly salty so a very little goes a long way!

Uses: Himalayan salt can be used instead of table salt as a general-purpose salt. Great for chicken, beef or creating a salt crust on fish. You can also use it for pickling and curing.

Price: $0.75 an ounce and up

Himalayan Pink Salt Cooking Slabs

I own the 'raw edge' cooking slabs for cooking and for presentation. No matter which type you choose, they are always a hit when friends are over!

A Short Story About Salt

This is a great video clip CBS News Sunday Morning Show produced showing all aspects the edible salt industry, including mining rock salt, harvesting sea salt, a short history lesson and cooking and serving food on Himalayan salt slabs.


Sea Salt

Sea salt, (solar salt, or bay salt) is formed naturally in warm climates, using the sun and wind to evaporate the brine and form salt crystals. This is accomplished using a series of large man-made ponds or troughs called "salt ponds". Connected to oceans and bays by channels, these salt ponds are wide and shallow with a clay lining to hold the brine. As the salinity of the brine increases by evaporation, it is pumped from one pond to the next, until eventually, in the last pond, salt crystals form.

This lengthy process can take up to 3 years, before the salt is then harvested, usually by hand. Sea salt is considered unrefined, or minimally refined because after harvesting it undergoes little to no further processing. Most commonly after harvesting, sea salt is rinsed in seawater to remove any pieces of mud or other impurities on the surface that may remain. This lack of refinement and slow evaporation leave the minerals intact, and much healthier for you than table salt.

The region from where the seawater is collected determines the salt's specific characteristics, such as variations in mineral content, flavor, texture and uniformity. Here I'd like to discuss a few of the different types of sea salts I use, by region.

Image Credit: Ponderosa Valley Wellness

Sea Salt on Amazon - Australian, Mediterranean and Generic (Great Value)

French Sea Salt

Fleur de Sel

Fleur de Sel, meaning "Flower of Salt" in French, is much acclaimed in the culinary world and revered by many chefs. It is a highly prized finishing salt, with supremely subtle flavor and delicate mouth feel.

Harvesting this salt is truly a labor of love, and has been done the same way since the seventh century. A fine layer of salt crystals form naturally on the surface of a salt pond. This layer is carefully skimmed from the pond, using wooden rakes, before it can sink to the bottom (this is an important distinction between Fleur de Sel and Sel Gris). After skimming, the salt is left in piles to be dried by the sun and the wind.

As with the common mislabeling of sparkling wine, the name Champagne is only correctly attributable when it is produced in the Champagne region of France. So too, sea salt is truly only Fleur de Sel if it is produced in the Guérande region of France using those traditional methods.

Texture: Crisp, thin flakes, almost like wet snowflakes. Delicate in texture, with a great mouth feel. A very moist salt with total water content sometimes as high as 10 percent. The size of the crystals or flakes is very irregular, which means that as the flakes hit your tongue they dissolve at different rates. Fleur de Sel gives the food a very slight crunch and glimmer.

Flavor: Lightly salty, almost sweet, with a faint floral note of violet. Complex and balanced in flavor, it takes very little to make a unique and graceful impact on the tongue.

Uses: As the crème de la crème, this salt is sprinkled over decadent deserts like molten chocolate cake and caramels. It also takes simple dishes like a bowl of good chocolate ice cream to the next level. Try it on salads or sprinkle it on freshly sliced tomatoes or buttered radishes. It imparts wonderful flavor on grilled meats or fresh vegetables.

Price: This is one of the most expensive salts on the market at around $2.00 (and up) per ounce.

Image Credit: Fotopedia

This is one of my favorite recopies by Ina Garten (via the Food Network) for creamy caramels topped with Fleur de Sel. Great as a dessert for a cocktail party, or make them for your family and watch as they quickly disappear!

  • Prep time: 2 hours
  • Cook time: 1 hour
  • Ready in: 3 hours
  • Yields: 16

Ingredients

  • Vegetable Oil
  • 1 1/2 Cups Sugar
  • 1/4 Cup Light Corn Syrup
  • 1 Cup Heavy Cream
  • 5 Tablespoons Unsalted Butter
  • 1 Teaspoon Fine Fleur de Sel (plus extra for sprinkling)
  • 1/2 Teaspoon Pure Vanilla Extract

Instructions

  1. Prep the pan.
  2. Line an 8-inch-square baking pan with parchment paper, allowing it to drape over 2 sides, then brush the paper lightly with oil.
  3. Boil the sugar.
  4. In a deep saucepan (6 inches wide and 4 1/2 inches deep), combine 1/4 cup water, the sugar and corn syrup and bring them to a boil over medium-high heat. Boil until the mixture is a warm golden brown. Don't stir -- just swirl the pan.
  5. Heat the cream.
  6. In the meantime, in a small pot, bring the cream, butter and 1 teaspoon of fleur de sel to a simmer over medium heat. Turn off the heat and set aside.
  7. Finish the caramel.
  8. When the sugar mixture is done, turn off the heat and slowly add the cream mixture to the sugar mixture. Be careful -- it will bubble up violently. Stir in the vanilla with a wooden spoon and cook over medium-low heat for about 10 minutes, until the mixture reaches 248 degrees F (firm ball) on a candy thermometer.
  9. Fill the pan.
  10. Very carefully (it's hot!) pour the caramel into the prepared pan and refrigerate for a few hours, until firm.
  11. Cut the caramel.
  12. When the caramel is cold, pry the sheet from the pan onto a cutting board. Cut the square in half.
  13. Roll it up.
  14. Starting with a long side, roll the caramel up tightly into an 8-inch-long log.
  15. Cut into pieces.
  16. Sprinkle the log with fleur de sel, trim the ends and cut into 8 pieces. (Start by cutting the log in half, then continue cutting each piece in half until you have 8 equal pieces.) It's easier to cut the caramels if you brush the knife with flavorless oil like corn oil.
  17. Wrap the candies.
  18. Cut glassine or parchment paper into 4-by-5-inch pieces and wrap each caramel individually, twisting the ends. Store in the refrigerator and serve the caramels chilled.
  19. Photograph by Quentin Bacon
Cast your vote for Fleur de Sel Caramels

French Sea Salt

Sel Gris (Grey Salt)

Sel Gris, (grey sea salt), or as it is often known in North America as Celtic salt, is also produced along the coast of France but in various regions, unlike Fleur de Sel. Sel Gris is also harvested differently; the salt is allowed to sink to the bottom of the bed. There, it absorbs minerals over time from the clay, which gives the salt a distinctive taste and high mineral content. Grey salts get their name from the hue they acquire from the grey clay lining the bed of the salt pond. Sel Gris is naturally coarser than Fleur de Sel, and is slightly less rare and less expensive. Like sugar, it can be purchased in coarse, fine or extra fine grinds. The latter is reminiscent of confectioner's sugar, and is often used to coat popcorn or mix into butter or cream cheese.

Texture: This varies based on your selection of a coarse, fine or extra-fine grind. Coarse is the most traditional form. Sel Gris is also a moist salt, sometimes containing a water content as high as 13 percent. I prefer a coarse grind for most uses, but also love to process my coarse salt into extra fine, using my coffee grinder (a separate one used just for spices of course). This way, I have coarse and extra fine salt in one purchase.

Flavor: Since this salt is denser than other sea salts, in general, it is slightly saltier. However when compared against table or kosher salt, it has a more mellow flavor. Proponents say it is slightly sweeter tasting than a typical table or kosher salt as well.

Uses: Coarse grey salt is best paired with meats in hardy dishes like stew, on cooked vegetables, or especially over braised vegetables (my favorite). Extra finely ground grey salt, when mixed into unsalted melted butter, makes a superior topping for popcorn.

Price: About $1.00 per ounce and up.

Image Credit: Salt News

Italian Sea Salt

Sale Marino, or Trapani sea salt

Italian sea salt (Sale Marino, or Trapani salt) is produced along the west coast of Sicily in the city of Trapani. Trapani lies on the famous salt road used by the Phoenicians to support Sicily's economy with the production of salt. It is home to some of Europe's oldest salt marshes. These marshes, fed by the Mediterranean, in turn, feed the salt ponds.

In this case, like all other sea salts, the sun and the wind evaporate the water and leave behind salt crystals. In Sicily it is sold fresh and wet. For commercial packaging however, it is further dried and milled into coarse or fine cubic salt grains. Italian sea salt contains trace amounts of minerals such as iodine, potassium, and magnesium. These minerals give the salt its unique flavor.

Texture: Trapani is similar to Kosher salt in size and texture although the grains are slightly more cubic. It is not as moist as Fleur de Sel, but moister than kosher salt, making its texture somewhere in-between the two.

Flavor: This salt is pure tasting, yet delicate. The minerals in Italian sea-salt present a bright, clean taste, without being so strong as to overwhelm the taste of the salt. It is a great replacement or substitute for kosher salt, with the added benefits of these minerals.

Uses: This salt is great on salads, and seems to be uniquely suited for fish. More so, it is an ideal salt to use for cooking as well as finishing! It freshens the flavor of almost any dish. Try it in your favorite marinara, or use it to finish appetizers of fresh bruschetta atop crusty baguette slices.

Price: $0.80 per ounce and up

Image Credit: Ecco La Cucina

Hawaiian Sea Salt

Alaea (Red Clay Sea Salt)

Alaea Salt

(Pronounced a-la-AY-a)

Hawaiian's use Alaea salt as a seasoning but also as a purifier, or a cleanser. It is used to bless tools, boats, homes and temples. As a seasoning Alaea is the salt found on most Hawaiian family's table. It is used in most native dishes, ensuring its flavor is a traditional part of Hawaiian cuisine. It is used to prepare raw fish for preservation and as a fresh appetizer, it is mixed with seaweed and used in native meat dishes. Alaea salt gets its deep pink to red color and name from a red volcanic clay called alae. It containing approximately 80 different minerals, primarily iron oxide, hence the almost rusty pink color. Since a higher percentage of this salt is comprised of absorbed minerals and less sodium, many agree it is one of the least harsh of sea salts.

Texture: The salt, can be ground or left in it's coarse state. The coarse grain is the traditional Hawaiian form. Its texture is similar to kosher salt, but with only slightly larger flakes. It exhibits a smooth texture when melting on the tongue and dissolves rather slowly.

Flavor: Light and earthy, with a slight aftertaste of minerals.

Uses: This salt is great on pork loins, beef tenderloins, prime rib, and, of course traditional Hawaiian dishes. Try it on oven roasted potatoes or sautéed vegetables. It can be used in place of table salt although it is more expensive.

Price: $1.00 per oz. and up

Image Credit: Gourmet Salts- Terra Stella

Hawaiian Sea Salt

Hiwa Kai (Black Lava Sea Salt)

Hiwa Kai is a black sea salt also produced in Hawaii. This salt is produced the same way as the Alaea salt except that instead of being mixed with red clay, Hiwa Kai is mixed with activated volcanic charcoal; to give the salt it's color, flavor, and mineral content. Hawaiians claim this salt offers many health benefits due to this charcoal possessing anti-aging and detoxifying properties. It has a stunning, glossy black surface reminiscent of glimmering black diamonds.

Texture: Hiwa Kai has coarse grains and thick flakes similar in appearance to kosher salt, except black. This salt has a slow smooth melt, making the texture silky and elegant. Great for providing a crunchy garnish!

Flavor: Briny with a very slight mineral tang aftertaste. This salt has a 'zing' that hits you but then dissipates as it dissolves slowly on the tongue.

Uses: Hiwa Kai is most commonly used as a garnish because of its great color and crunch. It's ideally suited to top rice and bright green vegetables because of the contrast of colors and its crunchy texture. Great for creating an impact on your plate.

Price: $1.00 per oz and up

Image Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

Indian Black Sea Salt

Kala Namak

Indian black sea salt or Kala Namak is produced in the same way as other sea salts except that ground herrod seeds are boiled with the brine before evaporation. The salt crystals are large and black or brown with a purple hue that turns pink when ground.

Texture: This salt although very coarse, is usually ground into a fine powder when used, therefore providing little to no texture itself.

Flavor: Vegan chefs have contributed to this salts popularity in western cultures because its sulfuric flavor is very similar to eggs. It is salty and somewhat pungent in both flavor and smell.

Uses: In western cuisine It is primarily used in Vegan dishes that mimic eggs such as omletes or a tofu 'egg' salad. It is used in the Indian culture in many condiments, such as chutney and as a main component of Indian spice blends like chaat masala. Similar to bamboo salt, Kala Namak is used medicinally; as a laxative, as a cure for heartburn, and as an additive to toothpaste.

Price: $1.00 per ounce and up

Image Credit: Food Subs

Cold Smoked Salts

Cold smoked salts are almost exclusively derived from sea salts, because of their more delicate base flavor. The salt absorbs the flavor of the smoke and darkens in color, taking on the flavor characteristics of the wood used to smoke it. Common woods include hickory, applewood, and alderwood. It can take up to 10 days before the salt is fully smoked. The smoking process requires somewhat specialized equipment, and technique. If incorrectly smoked, the water content in the salt can be leached out, dissolving the crystals and ruining the final product.

Texture: Smoked salt has a very interesting texture. Smoking causes the water to further evaporate out of the salt crystals and it leaves behind tiny holes. These holes can make the salt more porous than other types, and 'pop' in your mouth more than crunch.

Flavor: Smoked salts assert a smoky taste and aroma to many types of food. Make sure to use 100 percent naturally smoked sea salt. Some cheaper brands have simply been sprayed with liquid smoke and offer a terrible chemical aftertaste.

Uses: This salt quickly adds smoked flavor to any dish it finishes and used alone, often works best. Frequently when mixed with other strong spices, its particular taste characteristics get muddied. It imparts great flavor to chicken breasts, ribs, pork, steak and even rice or potatoes. Mix it into mayonnaise for a smoky tasting sandwich!

Price: $2.00 per ounce and up

Image Credit: The Author, Second Hand Joe

Bamboo Salt

Jukyom or Jook Yeom (Parched Salt)

Bamboo Salt (parched salt, jukyom or jook yeom) is primarily produced in Korea with its origins stemming from Taoist Monks. These monks first created the salt over 13 centuries ago and passed the technique from generation to generation. The creation of this salt focuses on healing. The minerals and nutrients found in bamboo and the yellow clay, in which it grows, are fused with the salt by burning or roasting the salt inside of a yellow clay lined kiln, which burns pinewood. The pinewood creates smoke and charcoal, which is also absorbed by the salt.

Charcoal is known to have detoxifying effects on the body. The salt is packed into the natural segments of bamboo and capped with yellow clay. The salt is then burned in the kiln until no bamboo remains. This leaves behind a salt block. Depending on the type, this process is repeated up to nine times (the optimum number according to monks) each time the salt is crushed and repacked into bamboo .

Jook Yeom is labeled with the number of times it has been roasted, typically one, three or nine. 9X salt has been roasted, crushed, and repacked nine times. The additional roasting darkens the color, sometimes turning red or even lavender, and absorbs more smoked flavor and minerals. An important note is that after the 8th roasting, the salt is transferred from the kiln into a metal forge, where it is heated to a an even higher temperature. This completely melts the salt, producing a product much different than 1X or 3X bamboo salt. The intense heat rids the salt of any impurities and creates a very pure product packed with minerals and other micro-nutrients.

This salt is claimed to have detoxifying properties and has historically been used by monks to cure any ailment. Korean's add it to a wide variety of products including toothpaste and face-cream; citing its antioxidant richness as an anti-aging compound. Historically, Koreans used salt as a toothpaste, spreading the salt on their teeth, using their fingers to brush, and rinsing with warm water.

Texture: Although many different grinds are available, powder, or extra fine is the most common. This is due to Bamboo salt being consumed on its own, much like a daily supplement. Sprinkled on food it absorbs very quickly and doesn't have much, if any texture on the tongue.

Flavor: Bamboo salt has a very bold flavor. The less times it has been roasted the saltier it will taste. 3X roasted bamboo salt is the most sulfuric with stronger mineral taste. 9X bamboo salt is the most powerful. It has a very strong mineral taste and is only slightly sulfuric. The flavor is quite complex, smooth and sophisticated, however because it is strong it is an acquired taste.

Uses: You can use it to replace table salt, and may be a good switch if it is as healthy for you as many claim. I am still undecided. It lends great flavor to traditional Korean dishes and oriental dishes. I use it in stir-fry!

Price: $2.00 per ounce and up

Image Credit: Green Earth News

"Great Gourmet Salt Deals on Ebay" - With Priority Shipping!

This is a portal to a trusted, Top-Rated Ebay seller. See what she has this week, or type 'gourmet salt' into the Ebay search. Enjoy!

Is Salt Getting an Unfair Shake? - The Salt Guru Says Yes!

Mort Satin (The Salt Guru), Vice President and Technical Director of the Salt Institute based in Alexandria Virginia, has produced a series of short videos arguing against the governments 'risky' over-regulation of salt in our diets. Check out the Salt Guru on YouTube. This link takes you right to his 'channel' and features all his videos.

Note: I interviewed Mr. Satin on February 15th, 2012 and aside from graciously approving my use of his videos in this article, he remains absolutely diligent in his affirmation that the FDA's position on decreasing our daily salt intake is voodoo science and dangerous. Please watch his video. What do you think?

Please Share Your Opinion - Watch the Video and Join the Debate. . .

The Salt Guru says that the FDA's attempt to decrease our salt intake is over-reaching and dangerous to our health and he offers numerous peer-reviewed studies to back his claims. Do you feel he is correct or do you tend to agree with the Federal Government's position?


The Great Salt Debate - Who's Right?

"A Grain of Truth"

Salt is the only non-biological food that humans routinely eat.

Oddly enough,

Water is the only non-biological liquid that humans routinely drink!

We're Only Strangers Once. . . - Please Leave a Comment!

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    • giacombs-ramirez profile image

      gia combs-ramirez 4 years ago from Montana

      I love this lens! Wish I could leave a blessing...

    • geosum profile image

      geosum 4 years ago

      Didn't know there were so many varieties of salt. Good lens.

    • profile image

      LadyDuck 4 years ago

      Great lens, my preferred salts are: Sel de Guerande et Sel Gris. My husband prefer the Persian Blue Salt and the Himalayn.

    • profile image

      anonymous 4 years ago

      A pleasure to stop by here again. Such a wealth of information. :)

    • SecondHandJoe LM profile image
      Author

      SecondHandJoe LM 4 years ago

      you're very welcome and thanks for your input!

    • profile image

      anonymous 4 years ago

      What an amazing lens. I never realized so many different types of salts existed. Thank you for the module about hickory smoked salt. Our dry rub recipe calls for it and we have had a hard time finding it around here. I never thought to look on amazon.

    • siobhanryan profile image

      siobhanryan 4 years ago

      I think that this is an amazing lens about a difficult topic. Inever knew there was such variety-Every day you learn something new is a good day.Blessed

    • AstroGremlin profile image

      AstroGremlin 4 years ago

      Terrific, comprehensive lens! It's hard to know whether I would get a goiter if I stopped eating iodized salt -- kind of like tapping your fingers to keep the elephants away. Does it work? Well, do you see any elephants?

    • Rosetta Slone profile image

      Rosetta Slone 4 years ago from Under a coconut tree

      I found this after I'd already published a lens about preserving foods with salt.

      This page is so comprehensive, interesting and mouth-watering. Beautiful!

    • profile image

      JoshK47 5 years ago

      Just popping in to mix some angel dust in with your salt! :)

    • ramonabeckbritman profile image

      ramonabeckbritman 5 years ago

      My favorite is dead Sea salt. Nice Lens, lot's of great information. Thank you for sharing.

    • Hypersapien2 profile image

      Hypersapien2 5 years ago from U.S.

      Another great and informative lens! Liked and blessed!

    • koshertrade profile image

      koshertrade 5 years ago

      Thanks for this great lens about salt! I never knew that there are many salt classifications.  The information about the kosher salt is interesting because of course it is my favorite. It is indeed less salty in nature so it complements my kosher food dishes.

    • thesuccess2 profile image

      thesuccess2 5 years ago

      Angels Blessings for this Salty Lens

    • jmchaconne profile image

      jmchaconne 5 years ago

      Great lens, very informative, tasty!

    • TeacherSerenia profile image

      TeacherSerenia 5 years ago

      This is a wonderful lens. I always wanted to write a history of Salt - from ancient times to the present. But now I dont need to. Blessed by a passing angel.

    • profile image

      jazziyarbrough 5 years ago

      Thank you so much for the care you have taken in putting this lens together. I thought I knew a lot of about salt as I am somewhat of a health advocate. I never knew about french and italian salt! I learned a lot from your lens and thank you for sharing.

    • profile image

      glutenallergy 5 years ago

      My goodness! I had no idea there were so many different types of salt.

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      Visiting back to pass on some wishes for the brilliant work! :)

    • VisFeminea profile image

      VisFeminea 5 years ago

      wow, learned some about salt! Thank you!

    • LouisaDembul profile image

      LouisaDembul 5 years ago

      I just loved that Himalayan salt slab, what an interesting way of cooking!

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      Salt! I do take this with a pinch of Salt! Amazing compilation on an oft ignored commodity in the kitchen... Brilliant work and thank you for clearing my ignorance on this subject!

    • gypsyman27 lm profile image

      gypsyman27 lm 5 years ago

      I am really astonished at the collection of salts you have here Joe. This was very interesting and informative. I am not allowed salt in my diet as an additive. It seems I get enough naturally. I am sorry I can't eat the salt, but sometimes I use sea salt when I am cooking for others. See you around the galaxy...

    • chezchazz profile image

      Chazz 5 years ago from New York

      Wonderfully informative lens. Since we live in an area that was known for the salt mines back in the day, I found it particularly interesting to learn more about it. Hope you don't mind a sprinkling of angel dust with your salt, since I've blessed this lens and featured it on my "Still Wing-ing it on Squidoo" lens.

    • ajgodinho profile image

      Anthony Godinho 5 years ago from Ontario, Canada

      What an informative and thoroughly researched lens on salt. I didn't know there were so many different types. I definitely try to limit processed foods, the best I can. I personally don't like too much salt, but like to use it in food. Stay healthy and blessed! :)

    • dc64 lm profile image

      dc64 lm 5 years ago

      I dislike the taste of salt and anything salty. It can take me years to go through a container of salt. I almost never add it to my food when cooking. I have to rub the salt off of each potato chip, and can't stand anything salt cured. I actually like hospital food, probably because it isn't so salty. The one thing I do use it on is watermelon. Yummy!

    • Millionairemomma profile image

      Millionairemomma 5 years ago

      Great selection.

    • LittleLindaPinda profile image

      Little Linda Pinda 5 years ago from Florida

      That is quite an array of salts. Thanks.

    • MJ Martin profile image

      MJ Martin aka Ruby H Rose 5 years ago from Washington State

      Wow, I never knew there were so many different kinds of salt. This is amazing. What a wonderful lens! I am impressed.

    • stylishimo1 profile image

      stylishimo1 5 years ago

      Very interesting, I never would have thought of sprinkling salt on desserts but will have to try it now.

    • philomystical profile image

      philomystical 5 years ago

      I've never known as much about salt like I know it now. Thanks!

    • SecondHandJoe LM profile image
      Author

      SecondHandJoe LM 5 years ago

      @sousababy: Thank you, You are so kind!

    • kindoak profile image

      kindoak 5 years ago

      Good solid info on a tricky subject here! i always try to use less salt, but having a flavor on it can't hurt :) Interesting hierarchy chart

    • biminibahamas profile image

      biminibahamas 5 years ago

      Great salt info. Learned a lot about salt, never knew there was black salt ... go figure!

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      wow. I didnt know there so many kind of salt in this world. great info

    • profile image

      JoshK47 5 years ago

      Awesome information about something that I think everyone takes for granted in their day-to-day life. Blessed by a SquidAngel!

    • gatornic15 profile image

      gatornic15 5 years ago

      Thanks for sharing. I had no idea there were so many types of salt.

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      Amazing, I did not know there are so many varieties of salts.

    • mjtaylor lm profile image

      mjtaylor lm 5 years ago

      Great lens! And I am pleased to see that you feel Himalayan Salt is as fine a product as I do.

    • pcgamehardware profile image

      pcgamehardware 5 years ago

      All I can say is .... Wow!...... Bring on the Lemons and Tequila... :)

      Just kidding, great lens SecondHandJoe, I never realized there were so much information about something that seems as simple as salt. Great lens with lot's of information. Thanks for sharing.

    • profile image

      reyange 5 years ago

      I love fancy salts. Fleur de sel is my favorite.

    • tvyps profile image

      Teri Villars 5 years ago from Phoenix, Arizona

      Happy National Potato Chip Day, with sea salt, of course!! Blessed by a Squid Angel.

    • agoofyidea profile image

      agoofyidea 5 years ago

      Wow! I had no idea there were so many types of salt and that they came in so many colors. I admit I like salt a lot. I might have to try some of these on my food.

    • Kathryn Beach profile image

      Kathryn Wallace 5 years ago from Greenbank, WA, USA

      I love salt. Good think I have low blood pressure...

    • junecampbell profile image

      June Campbell 5 years ago from North Vancouver, BC, Canada

      I had no idea there was so much to know about salt. Thanks for this informative and helpful lens.

    • MariaMontgomery profile image

      MariaMontgomery 5 years ago from Central Florida, USA

      This is a great lens! Very informative. I have bookmarked it for future "study". Thank you. Liked.

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      This is a very informative and interesting lens on salt, it answered a lot of questions that I had. Thanks for sharing :)

    • AnnaMKB profile image

      AnnaMKB 5 years ago

      Thanks for sharing so much great information! I'd been curious about the pink salt, but didn't even know about some of the others you mention.

      Smoked salt has become my personal favourite. :-D

    • dahlia369 profile image

      dahlia369 5 years ago

      I love all the salt varieties, their different looks, flavors and textures. Wonderful lens! :)

    • LisaDH profile image

      LisaDH 5 years ago

      I never knew there were so many kinds of salt! Very interesting.

    • TonyPayne profile image

      Tony Payne 5 years ago from Southampton, UK

      Excellent information on salt, far more than I knew previously. I have been to Guerande several times and seen the salt flats, it's a lovely part of Brittany. Great job, blessed.

    • KimGiancaterino profile image

      KimGiancaterino 5 years ago

      Trader Joe's carries so many wonderful salts in plastic grinders. We put several varieties on the table so our guests can try different ones. Thanks for explaining the origins of the various salts. I have a new appreciation for them.

    • Steph Tietjen profile image

      Stephanie Tietjen 5 years ago from Albuquerque, New Mexico

      This certainly is a "Star" lens. Congrats. I love the French grey salt, and am looking to try the black Hawaiian. Thanks

    • JoleneBelmain profile image

      JoleneBelmain 5 years ago

      Congratulations on the purple star!! Wow there sure is a lot to salt... I never would have imagined!! Thanks so much for sharing all of this great information with us :) (that pink salt with the shrimp cooking on it looks so mouth watering delicious Mmmmm).

    • norma-holt profile image

      norma-holt 5 years ago

      Hi George, well done on both the lens and the purple star. Rarely have I seen such quality from a new squid, although I know of one or two that got a LOTD with their early lenses. The information you have put into this work and the presentation is superb. Keep up the good work and your success here is assured. Hugs.

    • traveller27 profile image

      traveller27 5 years ago

      Great job...congrats on the Purple Star!

    • profile image

      KarenCookieJar 5 years ago

      Thanks for the great info about salt!

    • WindyWintersHubs profile image

      WindyWintersHubs 5 years ago from Vancouver Island, BC

      Congrats on your Purple Star!

    • digitaltree profile image

      digitaltree 5 years ago

      Great Lens, i need the pink salt block, looks good to try need food recipes.

    • lilymom24 profile image

      lilymom24 5 years ago

      Congratulations on your purple star. Its well deserved for a lens that is put together nicely. =)

    • Diana Wenzel profile image

      Renaissance Woman 5 years ago from Colorado

      What a fascinating and beautifully presented article on salt. You have convinced me to try some new varieties of salt based on the facts presented here. I appreciate the quality of content here. Thank you for the excellence.

    • favored profile image

      Fay Favored 5 years ago from USA

      I'm glad there wasn't a test on this class. This is why I'm not the chef, but get to enjoy the benefits of those who are. You did a great job on this and I can see why it took awhile to prepare. Another Star Lens!

    • kathysart profile image

      kathysart 5 years ago

      GREAT lens with wonderful insight on salt. Angel blessed~!

    • norma-holt profile image

      norma-holt 5 years ago

      Wow, this lens is extraordinary. Never knew there were so many different types of salt and black Hawaiian salt is awesome. You have done a superb job explaining the features and uses of them and the pics are great as well. Blessed and featured on Blessed by Skiesgreen 2012 and also on Cooking Utensils, Ideas, Recipes and Accessories, Hugs

    • WriterJanis2 profile image

      WriterJanis2 5 years ago

      Very informative lens.

    • iijuan12 profile image

      iijuan12 5 years ago from Florida

      What an informative lens! I've learned quite a bit. Blessed and liked.

    • profile image

      ohcaroline 5 years ago

      You present some awesome and informational lenses. Glad you came to Squidoo. Otherwise we would have missed what you have to give.

    • MartieG profile image

      MartieG aka 'survivoryea' 5 years ago from Jersey Shore

      So much well delivered information about salt - very good! :>)

    • sallemange profile image

      sallemange 5 years ago

      What an informative lens on something we take or granted. I've learned a lot off new things.

    • WriterJanis2 profile image

      WriterJanis2 5 years ago

      A very well put together lens with a lot of valuable information.

    • Commandrix profile image

      Heidi 5 years ago from Benson, IL

      This is definitely a well-researched and well-organized Lens, which I like to see. Cheers and keep up the good work. :)

    • AlphaChic profile image

      AlphaChic 5 years ago

      Well researched and presented. Very interesting.

    • SecondHandJoe LM profile image
      Author

      SecondHandJoe LM 5 years ago

      @sousababy: Thank You Rose! Your so sweet.

    • sousababy profile image

      sousababy 5 years ago

      Deserves a google +1.

    • sousababy profile image

      sousababy 5 years ago

      This is the most comprehensive thing I have ever read about salt. I always wondered about Hawaiian sea salt (and all those other varieties that I hear about but never looked into). Thank you for sharing this very well presented lens. Keep 'em coming.

      Sincerely,

      Rose

    • Redneck Lady Luck profile image

      Lorelei Cohen 5 years ago from Canada

      Wow you have covered everything possible on salt. This article is absolutely positively amazing. Great job.

    • profile image

      Helene-Malmsio 5 years ago

      This is a brilliantly informative lens about salt! In Australia we have come to realize that we need to go back to eating salt with iodine, which we were told to avoid in the 70's. I like to grind rock salts, and cook most of my own meals / condiments, so that I know what is in the food I eat.

    • Scriber1 LM profile image

      Scriber1 LM 5 years ago

      I usually use sea salt and kosher salt for cooking. I didn't realize just how many types of salt there were. Thanks for a very informative and useful lens!

    • profile image

      getmoreinfo 5 years ago

      I have been told that sea salt is really good for us, but I did not know of all the other salts such as the French one or the Black Lava Sea Salt, very interesting. Good job!

    • SecondHandJoe LM profile image
      Author

      SecondHandJoe LM 5 years ago

      @anonymous: Tipi- Thank you! I'm so happy you enjoyed it and were the first to comment. :-)

    • profile image

      anonymous 5 years ago

      Named "Salt 101" for good reason, I just got an education on salts. I love to use seas salt for cooking and baking, but regular table salt for hot cereals and potatoes. This might seem funny, but I can tell the the difference in tastes. - Another steller lens! :)