RITES OF PASSAGE FOR A MODEL RAILWAY - 13: OPEN MERCHANDISE WAGONS, Add Lift-out Loads For Realistic Traffic Interest
We've moved on a bit since then...
Messrs Grant and Taylor are retired career railwaymen with in-depth and practical experience of freight handling and loading by rail. Bill Taylor was Chief Loads Inspector on the Eastern Region of British Railways and its successors. Brian Grant has previously related his 40 years of experience on the railways in 'Home and Distant', also published by Silver Link in the 'Working Lives' range of books.
British Railways Wagons, loads and loading
You have seen the prototypes, now it's time for the models
There are several categories of open wagon. First there are general merchandise wagons, these being usually four-wheelers and originate from the early days of transporting goods by railway. They preceded the vans or 'covered wagons', but not the mineral opens. 'King Coal' stays top of the pile in terms of seniority, followed closely by iron ore and other ingredients of cast iron and then steel products.
But they can wait for now, what this page concerns is general merchandise.
The railway companies all produced vehicles, and one or two private companies made wagons to make up for any shortfalls the running companies faced, as well as the collieries, coal merchants and warehousing companies. Wagons were originally built willy-nilly, to no exact design or specification.
Accidents and safety concerns forced the powers-that-be to think again. The biggest contender in the free market for wagons, after general design features were laid down by the Railway Clearing House (RCH), was Charles Roberts of Gloucester.
Aside from Chas. Roberts the railway operators such as the North Eastern, Midland, London & North Western and Great Western designed their own wagons to specifications by the RCH. Design differences were not radical. Originally built entirely of wood aside from wheels, couplings and buffers, steel underframes were introduced as a result of accidents and materials failures, then all-steel wagons were seen from the 1930s onward. Some were un-fitted, i.e., the brake systems were non-linked between the brake van and locomotive. They were not allowed to exceed certain low speed limits because of these brake specifications. From around the time of WW1 experiments were conducted on freight wagon brake systems that led to faster goods workings, leading to express goods designations on the wagon ends and high-speed links between England and Scotland and Wales on the NER, MR, LNWR and GWR amongst others until the Government stepped in in the 1920s with Grouping of the railway companies, thus reducing the number of 'players' to: Great Western (GWR), London Midland and Scottish (LMSR), London & North Eastern (- or London & Nearly Everywhere, LNER) and Southern Railway(SR) companies.
Further developments in wagon design were laid down by the RCH through the 1930s to the 1940s (and wartime brought new specifications). Some parts of the system fell behind, like the Great Eastern (GE) and Great North of Scotland (GNS) sections of the LNER because of the low rail traffic they generated. The former North Eastern, Lancashire & Yorkshire, North British and Midland sections of the 'Big Four' found themselves off-setting the other constituents. The GW was fairly self-contained, its coal traffic and engineering industries sustaining growth. When the railway companies were brought 'under one roof' as British Railways - before the companies could recover from the rigours of the war - designs were pooled, with certain elements of the railway fraternity enjoying 'elite status' in certain respects, like the Great Western (GW) and London Midland (LM) regions.
You can guess from this that the range of ready-to-run (r-t-r) and kits is going to be broad. And you would be right! Furthermore, adding products by non-extant manufacturers to what's coming onto the market now increases the range. All these older models can be re-worked, r-t-r as well as kits, although you could finish up doing a lot more work on the older r-t-r models than on early kits. Mainly you are looking to detach the underframes, and you can buy underframe kits from Parkside (mainly for LNER) or Cooper Craft (Western). Finescale plastic wheelsets can be bought from Alan Gibson to replace older sets, or metal Romford wheelsets. You might need to remove bits from wagon ends, like handrail mouldings. These can be replaced with brass wire - also from Alan Gibson or Eileen's Emporium. Scout around exhibitions and swapmeets for wagons that could be rebuilt. A little bench-work can bring a wagon up to scratch that would never normally pass muster on a modern layout with Code 75/100 track. Even older plastic-bodied Hornby or Rovex products can be given a new lease of life. It all depends on what you are looking for, whether the wagons are in production or whether you are looking for a specific type no longer in production either as r-t-r or as a kit.
As a North Eastern area modeller you might think I only have LNER area stock or locomotives and wagons, but you would be wrong. Traffic entered each region from around the country. I have Western, Midland, even Southern wagons on my layout. With some imagination and even a smaller selection of tools and painting gear you can produce eye-catching wagons. You can see some of my articles for the DOGA Journal on their web site, and on loads.
There's another question: loads. Fixing a load into a wagon has its drawbacks. With loads that can be lifted out - either home-made or from, say Ten Commandments, your wagons run one way laden, the other way empty. Sidings contained both laden and empty wagons in block trains or trains made up with wagons for given destinations. Block trains were of one product, be it pipe, tube, brick or mineral, for example. You can get round 'loading and unloading' wagons by draping tarpaulins over them, pulled tight on sides, overlapped at the ends. You might try 'shaping' the tarpaulins so you can lift them off again and leave a folded one in the bottom of the wagon for the return trip. Again you could 'go the whole hog' by adding cotton 'ties' to the tarpaulins. Look at photographs to see how these are tied down; they even varied within regions, but by and large there was a set method of tying down tarpaulins.
Buffers and couplings can be changed, not only on kits but also on r-t-r wagons. Again Alan Gibson produce white metal buffers with sprung heads for wagons. Smiths' un-assembled three-link couplings (LP10) come in scale size (smaller brass links) as well as the larger size that I find are easier to handle. Also available are instanter couplings (LP2) and screw couplings (LP5). There are packets of magnetic links you can buy, that some people find useful. Exactoscale Limited, www.exactoscale.co.uk produce parts for quality P4 wagons, but if not a P4 modeller, you could still use them, such as Morton brake gear, sprung buffers, sprung chassis.
Depending on your skill level, scale or gauge there is an ample choice of publications for you to match your aspirations. Don't be intimidated by what you see in the pages of, say Model Railway Journal (MRJ), that specialises in finescale modelling. Alternatively look through the pages of British Railway Modelling (BRM), Hornby Magazine or Railway Modeller and a plethora of lesser known railway modelling publications. See what appeals in 2mm, 4mm (OO-Gauge, EM Gauge or Protofour/Scalefour) or 7mm, what era, region or location (city, town or rural, industrial etc).
Now look at the pictures
Robert Hendry's book looks at pre-Grouping, Grouping and British Railways 1948-1965 wagons and vans in period photographs. See also the drawings and series numbering with variants, updates and rebuilds at the back of this handy volume. The information contained in these pages will be invaluable to modellers and historians alike. Modellers in particular will appreciate the assistance given for weathering in these first-rate colour images
British Railways Wagons In Colour
Open merchandise and drop-side wagons
Eye-strainers: Detailing for the dedicated modeller
The wagon loads shown below are for insertion in, say, five plank or steel open wagons. They can be taken out to show wagons being returned empty, or to be replaced with other loads. Alternatively you can fix a tarpaulin of your choice (British Railways or pre-Nationalisation) permanently, or fold a tarpaulin to shape over a wagon and - without fixing it to the body - take it off to show a folded tarpaulin on the bottom. Try also inserting a tall 'load' (it doesn't matter what if you (or spectators at an exhibition) can't see it and fitting a tarpaulin over that. If you don't intend to remove the tarpaulin you can secure it with cotton to represent rope. Attach rings to the wagon side to take the 'rope' (you can get them from 'Masokits', who provide such things as movable brake levers and all manner of associated wagon detailing parts, but beware, this is why the label is 'Masokits'. You need to have very short eyesight to cope, or a set of good tweezers to go with your toolkit - and a clamp stand with magnifying.glass).
In later years you sometimes saw containers loaded into open wagons (desperation brings interesting solutions) if a container flat was not available in the goods yard when needed. In the steel bodied wagons; there were steel rings on the inside wagon walls to secure the containers to.(note 'dimples' on the exterior walls).
Masokits, Masterbits - Michael Clark
- Masokits Masterbits–Michael Clark
If you have the experience - and patient devotion to detail - try Michael Clark's model detailing products to enhance the realism of your railway vehicles. Look in MODEL RAILWAY JOURNAL for examples. Manufactured in etched brass and lost wax castings
LNER In Transition
The Austerity Years in sections - Michael Blakemore shows how the LNER metamorphosed into British Railways around eastern England and Scotland. Express and secondary passenger traffic, goods, freight, stations, goods and freight handling facilities. Everything's portrayed in glorious 40s and 50s black & white images. The advent of paid holidays didn't help a lot, either. Before widespread car ownership and the motorway the LNER and its successors British Railways Eastern, North Eastern and Scottish had its hands full with post-WWII rebuilding and a plethora of pre-WWI stock still in service around the system
- Hornby Magazine Britain's Fastest Growing Model Railway Magazine
Britain's Fastest Growing Model Railway Magazine
Take a look in the railway press - modelling, research, prototype - for ideas to set you off on the hobby. There is a wide range of books and periodicals, as here from the Wild Swan range. Whichever is the era or region of your choice, you can be assured there will be information to research for your stock, scenery or signalling. The MRJ goes back decades, although magazine stock storage is limited. There are many dealers at exhibitions who may be able to secure copies of what you want if they do not have the copies with them.
The modelling press in the UK - available worldwide - includes Hornby Magazine, Model Railway Journal, British Railway Journal and Peco's Railway Modelling magazine amongst others.
What I've included here demonstrates the standard and quality of only a fraction of what is on offer. For obvious reasons (space, purely) I've only shown the products offered by one of the publishers. Make yourself familiar with their products, you may wish to shop around, see what skill range various periodicals cater for. A little of everything or a lot of a few, the choice is infinite. I've got copies of several magazines and books from various sources (usually editions that offer information on the NER/LNER-NE/BR-NE).
You might specialise in one company, or a representative area serviced by that company. or even a particular branch line that you have plans for. The publishers listed here will have something for you somewhere. Call or contact them, their editorial staff may be able to help or refer you. There are specialist interest groups that offer information. Give them a try, join them maybe.
Enjoy your hobby.
Model Railway Journal (click on 'Wild Swan' for lists)
- The Titfield Thunderbolt Railway Bookshop
See our wide range of quality railway books all here in our bookshop in Bath
Wagon loads for opens, lowfits and container flats
Taking stock of the railways from the British Rail era, onward after steam to diesel traction and the differences in braking from steam to vacuum, wagon design, safety and loading considerations