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Roses of different colors & their gardening techniques
Besides aesthetic or emotional values, roses are valuable to the perfume industry and florists as they are great source of income. India's former Prime Minister late Jawahar Lal Nehru is reported to wear a rose everyday after a kid pinned a rose on his chest pocket.
Rose is the only flower that carries different meanings for its various colors. Different colors of the rose are considered as the signs of love, peace, friendship, strength and courage etc.
Relevance of different colors is described below.
White rose: peace, purity, secrecy, friendship, sympathy, reverence, humility, and Innocence.
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Red: love, romance, courage and respect.
Pink: grace, sophistication, appreciation and elegance.
Yellow: joy, delight and great friendship.
Blue: mystery, difficult to catch hold.
Burgundy: Beauty, Orange: Passion,
Black rose: A rose with very dark shade of red, purple, or maroon is often confused to be as black rose. In fictional TV serials, black rose is referred as black magic, a drink for survival of vampires (tasting as blood) or a term referring to made vampires or as a symbol of dying love.
Pot culture (garden):
• Roses may be grown in earthen or plastic pots in Varandah etc.
• Pots should be watered only when there is really a need for watering
• Over-watering may retard the growth of plants
• Wash plant leaves with sprinkler
• Apply one tablespoon mixed fertilizer (containing N, P & K) once in a fortnight
• 2nd or 3rd day after watering, do the inter-culture to aerate the soil
• Dip the whole pot in a big tub once in two month
Roses thrive in temperate climates, though certain species and cultivars can flourish in sub-tropical and even tropical climates, especially when grafted onto appropriate rootstock.
Varieties may be selected based on location as several varieties of roses are available for cultivation. Improved varieties include Edward Rose and Andhra Red Rose and cultivated generally in plains.
Hybrid varieties like Gladiator, Baby Pink, Sofia Lawrance etc are also cultivated in India. Hybrid varieties are suitable for higher elevation (1500 m and above) but can also be grown in the plains under ideal condition of fertile loamy soils.
Well-drained sandy loam soil is suitable for cultivation of both types of varieties. Cuttings with 2-3 buds are dipped in IBA or IAA @ 500 ppm before planting.
For commercial cultivation pits of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm are dug at 2.0 x 1.0 m spacing and 10 kg FYM is added to each pit before planting. An insecticide must be added to the soil before planting rose cuttings.
A quantity of 20 g of Lindane 1.3% per pit should be added to prevent attack by white ants. Pits should be irrigated once in 2 days until plants establish and once a week thereafter.
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Plants should be pruned in October cutting back the vigorous past season shoots to half the length and plants should be fertilized in July with 10 kg FYM and 6:12:12 g of NPK per pit.
Remove all the weak, diseased, and unproductive shoots and protect cut ends with Bordeaux or Copper oxychloride + Carbaryl 50 WP. Flowering commences 45 days after pruning.
Disease & Pest management
The main insect pest affecting roses is the aphid (greenfly), which sucks the sap and weakens the plant. Ladybirds are a predator of aphids and should be encouraged in the rose garden. Spraying with insecticide is often recommended but should be done with care to minimize loss of beneficial insects.
Spray endosulfan 35 EC 2 ml/lit to control insect damage. Insect like Holotrichia and Anomala spp.are trapped with light and killed. Rub off the scales with cotton soaked in kerosene or diesel to protect plants from red scale.
Affected branches are cut and removed. Need based spray of malathion 50 EC 2 ml/lit at the time of pruning and again during March - April protect plants from insects.
Spray monocrotophos 2 ml/lit or methyl parathion 2 ml/lit to control infestation of Mealy bug and Bud worm:Spray Carbendazim 1 g/lit twice at fortnightly intervals to control black spot disease (Diplocarpon rosae) or Powdery mildew.