ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Origin of Guardian Forces in Final Fantasy VIII

Updated on January 12, 2012

I was looking at the performance of some of the hubs that I've written, and it seems to me that people are really interested in a certain type of article. My best performing hub, in terms of page views, is titled Christianity in the Legend of Zelda? with a similar article about Religious Symbolism in Fullmetal Alchemist not far behind. In fact, it doesn't seem to matter which series, movie, or game I review -- people respond better to the analysis-type articles. They like them more. Well, I'm down with that; so I figured I'd write up a quick one for a certain well-known video game series. Specifically, I decided to pick one game in this series, Final Fantasy VIII, and detail the origins of the various Guardian Force summons of the game.

What I didn't realize was how long the article was going to get. It actually took quite a bit of time to do the research for this, and to write it: because although I try my best to write in a tone that assures you that I know everything about everything... I don't! So hopefully you guys will appreciate the time that went into this one, and you can learn something about a great game.

Quezacotl from Final Fantasy VIII
Quezacotl from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


The name Quezacotl comes from the name Quetzalcoatl, who was a god worshipped by the Aztecs. Most depictions of him show him as a "feathered serpent," which, accounting for a certain degree of artistic license, seems to coincide with Quezacotl's design. Interestingly, Quetzalcoatl was part of a group of gods, depicted as the "agricultural deities." Another of these gods, Tlaloc, was known as the god of rain, lightning, and thunder. It would seem that the Quzacotl of Final Fantasy VIII is an amalgamation of these two gods -- though it may in fact just be a coincidence.

Shiva from Final Fantasy VIII
Shiva from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


Shiva is a romanization of the Sanskrit name Śiva. Depending on the tradition of Hinduism that is followed, Shiva is either the supreme god of the Hindu religion, or is one of the five "primary forms" of God (alongside Vishnu, Devi, Surya, and Ganesha.) This is all pretty complicated stuff, but a primer can be found on Wikipedia, here. Visually, Square has gone their own way with Shiva's design, abandoning most of the defining attributes of the Hindu god. Most notably, in the game, Shiva is female rather than male.

Ifrit from Final Fantasy VIII
Ifrit from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


"Ifrit," as a word, stems from the Arabic term "عفرت," which means "the evil." Rather than an individual deity, it refers to a type of creature similar to the djinn or a genie. They appear in works of Middle Eastern literature such as One Thousand and One Nights, and tend to -- as their name implies -- be evil. Worth noting is that the term "Ifrit" also appears in the Quran, though when it is used, it is used only as part of a metaphorical phrase meaning "rebellious." (Source: Encyclopedia Britannica) Through dilution of the meaning of the word, "Ifrit" has become closely linked with demons. So what to take from all of this, is that Square picked an exotic sounding word, and ran with the fact that there wasn't much of a set definition for what it entailed.

Siren from Final Fantasy VIII
Siren from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


Of the Guardian Forces mentioned so far, Siren has undergone the least change from her source material. Sirens are found in Greek mythology, their most notable appearance in the story of Odysseus. As the myths go, the Sirens lured many sailors to their death through the alluring sound of their beautiful music. Physically, the Sirens were a mixture of human and bird. Artwork depicts them as having the body of a vulture-like bird, but with the head of a woman. Square has chosen a more human-like take on Siren, but the inspiration is still pretty transparent: both with the wings, and the harp.

The Brothers from Final Fantasy VIII
The Brothers from Final Fantasy VIII | Source

The Brothers

The Brothers, made up of two separate creatures: Sacred, and Minotaur. As his name implies, Minotaur is based off of... well, off of a Minotaur. For that matter, Sacred is as well -- they look pretty much the same. The Minotaur is also from Greek mythology. He was a monster with the head of a bull on the body of a man, who dwelled in the Cretan labyrinth, before he was killed by Theseus. Interestingly, Sacred and Minotaur are found in the maze-like Tomb of the Unknown King, in Final Fantasy VIII. So there was some thought put into this, for sure. As trivia, the characters on the shields held by the brothers mean "big brother" and "little brother."

Diablos from Final Fantasy VIII
Diablos from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


Diablos is an interesting name. A lot of people are quick to associate it with the Spanish word "Diablo," meaning Devil. Well, there is that. However, the name actually comes from the English romanization of his Japanese name, which was, itself, taken from the Greek word "diabolos." It means "Accuser" or "Slanderer," according to Wikipedia. Ultimately though, it does all boil down to the same thing. As his look shows, he is based off of a depiction of the devil that is rather popular in the mind of the public.

Leviathan from Final Fantasy VIII
Leviathan from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


It's hard to pin down the exact inspiration for SquareSoft's Leviathan, because he appears in such a wide variety of places, including ancient Middle Eastern myths, and the Bible. It even appears in more modern literature, from time to time. Sometimes the word refers to a whale, but other times it refers to a large seamonster. Specifically, it has at times referred to a sea serpent. This would seemingly be the depiction that Square chose to run with. The summon's attack, "tsunami" also fits this theme. Worth noting, however, is that in most appearences in religious text, Leviathan is specifically stated as not being evil or destructive, but just another of god's creatures. (Source: Psalm 104)

Cerberus from Final Fantasy VIII
Cerberus from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


There's only so much you can change with a three-headed dog before it ceases to be a three-headed dog anymore. So in that regards, the Cerberus of Final Fantasy VIII matches closely with the Cerberus of Greek mythology who guarded the gates of the underworld. It is one of the most instantly recognizable mythological creatures, appearing in works such as The Iliad, The Divine Comedy, and Paradise Lost. Hercules captured the thing alive as one of his twelve labors, but aside from that, the beast was pretty damn scary to most people.

Bahamut from Final Fantasy VIII
Bahamut from Final Fantasy VIII | Source


Bahamut has a mythological counterpart in Arabian mythology, but as it turns out Square took some real liberties with this one. The Bahamut of lore was not a dragon, but a really big fish. If you can imagine this: the fish has a bull on it's head, and above the bull is an angel holding up an angel. And below this fish? There's a giant abyss of fire, and a serpent monster. This is pretty crazy stuff right? Well, in One Thousand and One Nights, Isa (Jesus) actually sees this fish and faints due to shock. Square has chosen to ignore basically everything about the myth, and turn Bahamut into a dragon, because why not?

The Others

That basically concludes the list of standard guardian forces who are based off of a pre-existing work of literature, or myth. However, there are a few more guardian forces in the game, some of whom have a name with significance. For example, Pandemona probably derives its name from the same root words as Pandemonium -- the capital city of Hell, in Milton's Paradise Lost. Eden, may get its name from the Garden of Eden of the Bible. Alexander could be based off of a number of different things, but interestingly, its name means "Protector of Mankind" -- and that kind of meshes well with its holy-based attacks.

Jumbo Cactuar, Doomtrain, and Tonberry King are all -- to my understanding -- original creations of Square based off of enemies in previous games.

Lastly, Carbuncle. From what I was able to find, carbuncle is a really old name given to a certain type of red gemstone. This would make sense, given the design of the creature, with a red jewel on it's head. The word appears multiple times in the bible, as well as in such works as Hamlet by William Shakespeare. However, as far as any notable figure or creature is concerned, I found nothing.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Chris Qu profile imageAUTHOR

      Chris Qu 

      7 years ago

      Thanks, glad you liked it! Some are definitely more obvious than others, but you never know what background a player of the game might have. Best to include them all. :)

    • emmaspeaks profile image


      7 years ago from Kansas City

      So cool! Yes, I recognized Quetzalcoatl immediately. I studied religion during the Spanish conquest extensively and know that this was a Nahua, or Aztec god. Some of the others were kind of obvious, too, but good job on digging up info on the more obscure ones like Ifrit and Shiva. Great hub!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)