Vintage Poster and Paper Conservation Techniques
Conservation for works of art on paper
Do you have a valuable poster that needs a little work? Learn about the process of poster conservation and restoration, and make an estimate of the costs.
Conservation is the art of restoring and protecting many types of vintage posters, maps, autographs and works of art on paper including lithographs, silk screens (serigraphs) and modern offset printing.
These improvements are best made using "reversible" techniques and water-based adhesives that can be removed at a later date without harming the poster.
Poster restoration or conservation? - A difference of degree
The difference between conservation and restoration can be measured by the amount of repairs made to the work of art. Conservation uses mild techniques to stabilize the poster and protect it for the future. Restoration makes physical changes to the paper to improve the appearance and presentation of the artwork.
The decision to spend money on poster restoration and conservation depends on the existing condition of the paper and the rarity of the artwork. Quite often, seriously damaged posters can be completely transformed into a valuable artwork for your collection or to sell at auction.
Preparing the artwork
Art conservators first take photographs and make notes about the poster to document the existing condition. To prepare the artwork, any tape and adhesive is removed, including any attempts over the years to repair or preserve the artwork. Depending on the condition of the poster (see related article), some of the following techniques can be used to restore the original glory of your vintage poster or work of art on paper.
The next step in the process is to halt the effects of time. Most paper produced after 1840 was make with wood pulp which contains lignin and other impurities. When reacting to air, moisture and light, the impurities slowly eat away the cellulose that holds the paper together. Before 1840, "rag" paper was made with cotton and other fibers that are still used to make fine quality printing paper, and currency in some countries.
Take the acid out of old paper
Acid neutralizing is a mild treatment that first removes any surface dust. Then, the paper soaks in a solution that stabilizes the acid in the paper while adding a buffer which soaks up any additional acids to prevent further damage. In contrast, de-acidification uses a stronger treatment to actively take acid out of the paper. Poster conservation specialists can also bleach paper to remove dark stains and water damage.
Archival Mist is a well respected brand of acid neutralizing spray made for scrapbook artists and people who collect newspapers and paper memorabilia. The spray balances the pH level to neutralize acid, and spreads an alkaline buffer to absorb acid in the future. Not for photographs but great for the backside of unbuffered matting boards that may come in contact with photos.
Acid-free Archival Spray
Reduce the acid in old paper from newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, posters, tobacco cards, cards, certificates, correspondence, diaries.
1-1/2-Ounce Archival Mist
* Covers 25 square feet of paper
* Non-toxic and odor-free
* Does not affect ink or colors
See the reviews on Amazon for more information, and try the Pioneer Acid-Free Glue Stick Pen for scrapbooking.
Minor paper restoration
Paper defects are repaired before the artwork can be mounted on linen or paper and framed.
One of the easiest repairs to make is joining the edges of torn paper, and even fitting pieces together that have been ripped off. Pin holes and larger holes can be filled-in with rice paper or scraps of authentic paper from the time period.
These are simple paper restoration techniques, but entire sections of a poster can also be recreated that are almost undetectable. Refer to the article on poster condition for images and a glossary of different paper defects.
Once all the problems and defects have been mended, you can decide if you want the poster to be backed with linen. If the poster is in great condition, or if you want to frame the poster, then linen-backing is not required. If the poster is fragile or missing pieces, then linen may be the only way of joining the pieces together, or to simply keep the paper from disintegrating.
Do you conserve? - Working with poster conservation
Do you use the services of a poster conservation specialist or art conservator? Make you vote and make a comment , or add comments to the feedback box, below.
Have you ever used an Art Conservator?
Mounting vintage posters on a linen fabric background
Conservators use archival linen or cotton to create a stable background to support a vintage poster or any work of art on paper. First, archival paper is pasted to the back side of the artwork using acid-free and chemically inactive rice paste or other water-based adhesives. While the paste is drying, a very fine grade of linen, cotton fabric or duck canvas is stretched over a wooden frame, in the same way that an artist prepares a canvas for painting. The linen has a little tension in it when the artwork is pasted to the surface and left to dry for several days.
The linen mesh is very useful for flattening out folds and mending torn paper. Using this kind of linen backing is the only way to match up the panels of large 3 and 6-sheet posters for a huge piece of wall décor.
This process is completely reversible because the adhesives can be washed off with water in the future. Special care must be taken to remove all the dirt and writing on the back before the art is mounted on linen. This way, the writing will not have a chance to eventually bleed through and affect the image.
Conserving Art on Paper video - Smithsonian Institute
Visit a conservation lab in this well produced video from the Smithsonian Institute (3 minutes)
Prices for poster conservation - Linen-backing
Many conservators show prices on their website for linen backing common poster sizes. They may also list the price of standard services, like washing or bleaching, and hourly rates for paper stabilization (prep-work) and restoration work.
Poster sized artwork can be mounted on linen for an average of 12 dollars per square foot. (Calculate the square inches of your poster and divide by 144 to get the number of square feet.) Prices vary from 8 to 16 dollars a foot for a number of reasons. Very small and very large posters can be more expensive to work on due to setup and handing costs. Conservation specialists with a large workspace in urban areas may also have higher expenses. Fortunately, the internet makes it easy to deal with reputable poster specialists located anywhere in the country.
Preparation and touch-up work in often charged at an hourly rate between $50 - 100. The price of shipping the posters to and from the conservator is also a consideration.
Caring for artwork
Techniques to avoid
There are several ways to "improve" the condition of posters that are irreversible and actually harmful to valuable artwork.
Dry mounting the paper to foam-core or any other backing is not recommended, and laminating paper between layers of sticky plastic is not an archival technique. Depending on the adhesive that was used, a restorer may be able to remove a poster that was mounted to a backing board and prepare it for conservation.
Many people add tape to the corners of posters with the best intensions of protecting the paper from thumb tacks, only to open the posters a few years later to find oily spots damaging the image on the front. Please don't make the same mistake (find out more). There are some temporary adhesives made now that are non-oily and guarantee not to damage your poster. The best method to preserve any paper is to completely enclose the artwork in an airtight enclosure.
Archival paper tape for repairs
Picture framing - protecting artwork from the elements
The final step in poster conservation is the proper care and storage of the artwork. The best way to keep paper in mint condition is by investing in a picture frame to protect the paper. An "archival frame" is made with acid-free materials in a tightly sealed enclosure. The function of the matting board is to create an air space to avoid direct contact between the paper and the plastic or glass. The mat has a hole cut-out to see the picture and it can be used to cover the edges of the paper if the margin is showing signs of wear.
Plexiglas is often used for framing posters (also called Perspex or Lucite) because it's less troublesome than glass if it breaks. Special coatings can be applied that protect the artwork from ultraviolet light emitted by the sun or even from ordinary light bulbs.
Encapsulation - Keeping out air and moisture
Encapsulation is another word for an envelope or enclosure that is used to store paper, and any kind of artwork. Without a doubt, polyester is the best material for long-term storage of paper. A specific type of Polyester called Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) or (PETE) is a clear plastic known by the brand name Mylar and Melinex.
The properties of this plastic are ideal for archival-quality storage. Polyester has high clarity to see-through the material and view the paper. This way, the document can stay inside the envelope and away from oily fingers and liquid spills. Polyester is air-tight which keeps out dust and humidity. The party balloons with a shiny mirrored surface are made of Mylar to keep the gas inside. Polyester also has just enough flexibility to bend like paper or thick cardstock without cracking.
Polyester can be scratched easily and it's expensive to produce. Other types of plastic were developed that are much softer and less expensive for a similar amount of clarity. Millions of products are created (and recycled) every day made from PolyPropylene (PP) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE). Learn more about types of archival plastic at dotpattern - the digital museum of collecting.
Use large toploaders to encapsulate posters and works of art on paper
Ultra Pro 24 x 36 Top Loaders - (buy one or packs of ten)
Protect posters in large-sized "toploaders", the same ones used to keep baseball cards and trading cards in great condition. Each rigid-plastic sleeve fits two posters back-to-back, so it's easy to flip the toploader over to display the other side. Choose from many different sizes to fit anything from small tobacco cards to posters up to 29 x 43 inches (71 x 109 cm).
Find more toploaders at dotpattern - the digital museum of collecting.
Standard trading card size toploaders - Protect baseball cards and game cards
7 Trading Card Game Supplies
One of the most important things about playing trading card games is keeping the cards in excellent condition. During a game, each player has to quickly shuffle...
Choosing a conservator and appraiser - External links and references
- AIC - How to Choose a Conservator
The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works
- The Specialized Art of the Appraisal
By ANN CARRNS Personal-property appraisers aren't licensed, but reputable professionals are affiliated with at least one of the three major appraisal organizations: the Appraisers Association of America, which focuses on personal property; the Americ
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Share your experiences with poster conservation
Do you have any recommendations, or horror stories? Please share your thoughts so we can all learn what to expect when caring for posters and works of art on paper.