History of Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (ANUG) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the gums. This disease has a characteristic signs and symptoms which requires an immediate treatment. ANUG is a serious infection of the gums that causes swelling, ulcers which later form sloughing dead tissue in the mouth.
ANUG is identified in the BC era and took many centuries to find out about the etiology, clinical features, signs and symptoms. It is one of the periodontal emergencies.
ACUTE NECROTIZING ULCERATIVE GINGIVITIS had been recognized in the 4th century BC era by Xenophon. He mentioned that the Greek soldiers were affected with “sore mouth” and “foul smelling breath”.
Hunter in 1778 described the clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and differentiated it from Scurvy and Chronic periodontitis.
In 19th century Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis (NUG) occurred as an epidemic disease in the French army troops.
Hersch, a German pathologist,discussed extra oral signs and symptoms of anug , such as enlarged size of lymph nodes, rise in temperature or fever, malaise and increased salivation.
PLAUT, HUGO CARL (1858–1928), German bacteriologist described the etiology of trench mouth which was later described by Vincent. Hence it is also called as Plaut-Vincent disease or Angina Ulcero Membranosa which is caused by fusiform spirochetes.
A French physician Hyacinthe Jean Vincent (1862-1928) described that acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is caused by the bacteria spirochetes and Fusiform bacilli. Hence later it is named as Vincent’s angina. It is sometimes also referred as Vincent’s gingivitis or Vincent’s stomatitis.
ANUG was named as Trench Mouth during World War-1 because the soldiers in the trenches suffered with lot of stress, lack of nutritious food and lack of oral hygiene.
In the late 1980s-early 1990s, it was thought that acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis is associated with AIDS. Hence it was called HIV-associated periodontitis. But later its association with AIDS was identified due to the immune-compromised status of such patients.