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Adulteration in Grains (Wheat,Rice,Maize)

Updated on June 20, 2015


It is a process by which the quality or the nature of a given substance is reduced through the addition of a foreign or an inferior substance and the removal of a vital element.The substance that is used to lower the quality is known as adulterant.



    • These are the substances that are added as a deliberate act on the part of the adulterer with the intention to increase the margin of profit.

  • These adulterants have harmful effects on body.
    • E.g. sand, marble, chalk, dye, water, powder etc.


      • These adulterants are found in food substances due to ignorance, negligence or lack of proper facilities.

        • It is not willful act on the part of the adulterer.

          • E.g. pesticides, droppings of rodents, larvae in food.


            WHEAT(Triticum sp.)

            • Most widely grown cereal grain in the world.

              • Mild, nutty flavor and gluten(a sticky protein) makes it very popular for use in baked products.

                • Almost 25 species are recognized in the world.

                  • Most common specie is T. aestivum/vulgare.


                      i. They disturb the digestive tract.
                      ii. Ergotism (st. Anthony’s fire burning sensation in extremities, itching of skin, peripheral gangrene.
                      iii. Datura seeds contain dangerous levels of tropane alkaloids which are highly fatal.
                      iv. Odor and palatability of whole meal and finished products and adversely affected by a chemical (trimethylamine) produced during karnel bunt.

                    • PRECAUTIONS

                    Damaged and discolored grains should be as low as possible since they may be affected by fungal toxins i.e. datura seeds etc. In moderately excessive amount can result in risk to health, discard the damaged and undesirable grains before use.

                    RICE(Oryza Sativa)

                    • Rice is obtained from paddy.

                    • It is a staple food for many Pakistani’s.

                    • Almost 75% people use its grains as food.

                    • Rice requires an extremely moist soil.

                    • It is a water loving crop.

                      HEALTH EFFECT OF ADULTERANTS

                      They disturb the digestive tract.
                      Swallowing boric acid causes poisoning.
                      Urea causes nausea and vomiting.


                      Examine the rice sample carefully, remove visible contaminants and wash it 4-5 times before cooking.

                      MAIZE(Zea Mays)

                      i. It is known as corn.
                      ii. This crop is used both as food and fodder.
                      iii. It is the third most grown crop in the world.
                      iv. Almost 50 species of maize are known.
                      v. Maize has high energy content but low protein and fibre content.


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