African Swine Fever in Global Countries
African Swine Fever
African Swine Fever : Vital Information that public should know
African Swine Fever (ASF) or known as African Swine Flu is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs. In its acute form the disease generally results in high mortality. ASF is a different disease compare to swine flu. The disease may occur in acute, sub-acute or chronic forms. The acute form causes severe disease from which the majority of affected pigs die .The virus does not affect people and there is no impact on human health. Let's face the reality because it is already a present and a global threat . African Swine Fever is one of the most important diseases of pigs and the identification of the disease in a country normally results in the suspension of exports of pigs and pig products across the globe.
The content of this article is more on global countries meaning all continents that is related to African Swine Fever which includes African Swine Flu. This is already scattered in social media, all website search engines such as Google, Yahoo, Ask Jeeves and more, etc.
I am the 1st online article writer in Hub Pages who write an article that is related about African Swine Fever with a heavy content .
This is the classification of African Swine Fever as a virus based on their classification
Realm : Varidnaviria
Species: African swine fever virus
This can be applied as Veterinary Virological research or for those who are in the field of Veterinary Virology.
Speaking of Virology, I also place a pure virological research in African Swine Fever that is based on Genotype, evolution and also taxonomy.
All the photos, videos are posted here in this article are posted in this respective website and it is proven complete that is related to African Swine Fever.
This is a lifetime article , just in case if something happens to me at least I leave a remembrance to the public viewers, veterinary virologist' verterinarians, researchers, Scientist will be a big help to read my article so that the viewers will be totally aware and be exposed about this topic.
Historical background of African Swine Fever
This section composed of a historical background of African Swine Fever of what year did it start ? , where did it happen? how did it happen and how did they got it's name of this virus? All the historical details is completely here until present. This is the most important part that people should know all the historical events that is related to the African Swine Fever incident.
A lot of people across the globe are asking to me "When did the African Swine Fever start?"
Many of us will be surprised of how did this virus started until present times and there is a possibility that this virus will still exist until such time there is already a virus.
A lot of viewers will not believed because the first outbreak of African Swine Fever was retrospectively recognized as having occurred in year 1907 at the African nation no other than Kenya. It was documented by Montgomery in year 1921.
was considered a disease confined to subSaharan Africa until 1957, when an outbreak occurred on the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal) as a result of waste from airline flights being fed to pigs near Lisbon airport. A further introduction of ASF to Portugal was reported in 1960. ASF remained endemic in the Iberian peninsula until the mid-1990s. Outbreaks of ASF were reported in a number of other European countries during the 20th century, including Malta (1978), Italy (1967, 1980), France has three separate years happened in year 1964, 1967 and 1977, then in Belgium year 1985, and the Netherlands 1986. The virus was eradicated by slaughter from each of these countries but has remained endemic in Sardinia since its introduction in 1978. During the 1970s and 80s, ASFV spread to the Caribbean and South America like Brazil, where outbreaks were stamped out after they had devastated the swine industries in the affected countries.
The latest affected countries were Papua New Guinea at the very doorstep of Australia, and India in 2020.
On April 29, 2020, India reported the first African Swine Fever disease outbreak in the state of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh.
The next case of African swine fever that is happened also in Asia which is found in the Philippines which was confirmed on September 09,2019 by the country's agriculture department.
Symptoms of African Swine Fever
Here are the following symptoms that people should be aware of the Symptoms of African Swine Fever
- High fever in the degrees of 40-42°C
- Decreased appetite and weakness or known as loss of appetite
- Red/blotchy skin lesions
- Diarrhea, vomiting with bloody discharge
- Difficulty breathing
How does the African Swine Fever tramsmitted?
A lot of people who are considered as viewers and audiences ask ourselves "how does does the African Swine Flu transmitted?"
here are the answers to the public viewers:
African Swine Fever can be spread through:
>direct contact with infected pigs, faeces or body fluids
>indirect contact via fomites such as equipment, vehicles or people who work with pigs between pig farms with ineffective biosecurity
> pigs eating infected pig meat or meat products
Prevention of African Swine Fever
There is a saying, "if there's a problem , there's a solution " this is it, there is already a prevention of African Swine Fever (ASF)
Good biosecurity is essential to the prevention of introduction of African Swine Fever in all global countries.
Biosecurity measures that farmers can take
>maintain strict biosecurity which only allow essential visitors to enter your farm, and insist that they wear clean or disposible clothing and footwear, and wash their hands (or shower in if possible)
>only allow vehicles and equipment on to the farm if they have been cleaned and disinfected beforehand
> do not allow people who may have been in contact with other pigs on to your farm
> do not allow staff and visitors to bring pork products on to the farm
>do not allow catering waste / scraps to be fed to pigs - dispose of it safely
> only source pigs and semen of known health status
Vaccine Research of African Swine Fever
Please read these carefully from head to toe
Virus isolation techniques must be improved and further optimized cell lines should be developed to enable detection and sufficient replication of field virus strains.
The antibody and virus growth kinetics in African Swine Fever Virus survivors as well as persistently infected domestic pigs and wild boar should be investigated in more detail.
The virus persistence in the environment should be further analyzed.
There must be a harmonized genetic markers of African Swine Fever virus and further agreement on genome regions for harmonized analyses are needed.
There must be an improved non-invasive sampling techniques and point-of-care/pen-site diagnostics are necessary for an optimized disease control
In general, diagnostic methods, protocols and techniques should be further harmonized, standardized and disseminated. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) for ASFV-diagnostics should be available as a global standard.
As of December 28, 2020, there is no official vaccine that is commercially available. Immunity appears to be largely strain specific. There was an experimental vaccine is in development against the 2007 Georgia isolate currently circulating, which is attenuated by deletion of the viral I177L gene which was a big issue until now and the next paragraph that I composed is there must be a research funding for African Swine Fever vaccine . Many laboratories around the world are working on it to developed a vaccine, with some promising results, although more work is required to ensure the safely and efficacy of these prototype vaccines before registration. The vaccine research is not only days or months, it will take a long time such as years in order to develop a vaccine as 100% sure.
Research funding for African Swine Fever
The next paragraph that I will mention is more on research funding for African Swine Flu in order to eliminate this highly contagious viral disease of pigs at all cost.
According to Linda Dixon , an African Swine Fever Virus Group Leader of the Pirbright Institute said " we should support more research for African Swine Fever to enable us to develop a vaccine " because this is a health concern .for the pigs and in order to protect the pork industry. The main purpose and objective of this research funding is to apply and maintain research and development of animal research for developed and produced a vaccine in African Swine Fever which is the top priority in the global community.
Interested parties for those who are willing to donate wholeheartedly , you can also send thru Bank of the Philippine Islands or known as BPI and Banco De Oro or known as BDO. I also place the photos of each bank that is fused and it is seen after this paragraph.
You can also donate via Paypal that is attach in my article below.
For more infromation and details who would like to donate that is related to African Swine Flu, please email me directly to email@example.com immediately so that all countries will be solved their poultry industry in which , it will not affect their business in export and local industry. If you have several questions, clarifications, or reactions, you can also send thru my email directly.
BPI and BDO logo
Sources and References of African Swine Fever
The next portion of this paragraph is more on soruces and references that is related to African Swine fever . All you can see is accurate and totally complete resources
For the Global Countries
> Arirang News (South Korean based news)
For the Philippines
Video about South Korean Scientist facing diifculties in dealing with vaccine for African Swine fever
Video about the History of African Swine Fever
Virology of African Swine Fever
The virology of African Swine Fever will be divided or classified into three (3) categories such as Genotype, Evolution , and lastly, taxonomy.
For the geno type, All ASFV p72 genotypes have been circulating in eastern and Southern Africa. Genotype I has been circulating in Europe, South America, the Caribbean, and western Africa. Genotype VIII is confined to four East African countries.
In terms of Evolution
In the category and classification of taxonomy
The causative agent of ASF is African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large double-stranded Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) virus of the genus Asfivirus within the Asfarviridae family . Based on the family Asfarviridae has been included into the order of Asfuvirales and the class of Pokkesviricetes. Apart from this official nomenclature, it has been controversially discussed to include ASFV into the tentative order of Megavirales containing the monophyleticalthough it is heterogeneous clade of nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA viruses (NCLDV).