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Amazing Heart Transplant

Updated on December 6, 2019
Pamela99 profile image

After 22 years as an RN, I now write about medical issues and new medical advances. Diet, exercise, treatment, and lifestyle are important.

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Heart Transplant Making History

This month a heart from a deceased donor was actually revived after that patient’s death. The surgeons used an artificial circulatory mechanism and were able to get the heart beating.

The Duke University surgeons then transplanted the heart into a military veteran on the transplant list. The surgeons were able to revive the donor’s heart before surgically implanting it into the patient. In the past heart donations came have come from a live patient that may be brain dead or not able to recover from an illness or accident.

An average of 3,500 heart transplants are performed worldwide every year and about one half are performed in the US. About 200 heart and heart-lung transplants are performed in the UK due to severe heart failure.

History of Heart Transplants

In the late 1960’s, the first heart transplant was performed on a chimpanzee by Keith Reemtsma, MD. Tulane University then revolutionized organ transplantation, which helped people with organ failure around the world.

South African cardiac surgeon, Dr. Christian Barnard, performed the first human to human heart transplant in 1967. The surgeon used the techniques that had been developed by American surgeons, Norman Sumway and Richard Lower. Unfortunately, the patient died 18 days after the transplant.

The first pediatric transplant was performed in 1967, as well. Dr. Adrain Kantrowitz performed the surgery at Maimonides Hospital in Brooklyn, New York. Again, the child’s heart stopped beating after 7 hours.

On January 6, 1968, Dr. Norman Shumway and Dr. Donald Ross performed a heart transplant at Stanford University Hospital with success. For about a decade, Stanford University Hospital stood alone as they were the only hospital pioneering this operation. They withstood the controversy over the economic and legal issues. However, in 1968, there were 100 heart transplants performed by various doctors worldwide, but only one third of them lived longer than 3 months.

Brain death has been the only allowed ethical standard for a heart donation. The recent donation of the heart that was not beating came was the first adult DCD, which stands for donation after circulatory death in the USA. The new technique used for this heart used warm perfusion, which circulates the blood, oxygen and electrolytes through the heart. This technique was first used in 2015, in the U.K. at Royal Papworth Hospital.

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Medical Criteria for a Heart Transplant

If a patient is suitable for transplant they will be put on the transplant list. If a patient is potentially suitable they are reevaluated on a regular basis. The donor heart must be the correct size, it must match the patient’s blood and tissue type. A heart should be transplanted within 4 hours, so the patient has to be available with little notice.

When all other treatments for heart problems has failed and has heart failure the patient is eligible for the transplant list. Children who have a congenital heart defect or cardiomyopathy are candidates for a heart transplant.

For adults heart transplants occur for the following reasons:

  • Coronary artery disease
  • Heart valve disease
  • Severely weakened heart muscle (cardiomyopathy)
  • Recurrent and dangerous heart arrhythmias (especially ventricular arrhythmias)
  • Failure of a previous heart transplant

Multi-organ transplants are performed when necessary in select hospitals in addition to a heart transplant, and they include:

  • Heart and liver transplant
  • Heart and kidney transplant
  • Heart and lung transplant (rarely done)

A heart transplant is not done on someone of advanced age, when they have another medical condition that can shorten their life, when they have an active infection or a recent history of cancer. Also, if they are unwilling to make the necessary lifestyle changes to keep their donor heart healthy, such as quitting smoking or drinking alcohol as your body might reject the donor heart they are not eligible.

Experience a Heart Transplant in 360°

Problems Causing Rejection or Failure of Donor Heart

Rejection of the donor heart is the most serious factor. Immunosuppressants taken to prevent rejection can sometimes cause kidney damage.

Other potential problems include:

  • Primary graft failure - most frequent cause of death in the first few months following the transplant
  • Artery problems - the walls of the arteries in the heart may thicken and harden, which may make the circulation of blood through the heart compromised, which may cause a heart attack, heart arrhythmias, heart failure or sudden cardiac death
  • The immunosuppressants may cause an increased risk for developing cancer (non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), and there is an increased risk of skin and lip tumors
  • Immunosuppressants also decrease the body’s ability to fight infections.

The patient is monitored for signs of symptoms of rejection. It is imperative that the transplant team is notified for rejection signs, which include new shortness of breath,fatigue, fever, less amount of urine or weight gain.

Source

Advancing Technology

The intra-aortic balloon pump was successfully used starting in the 1970s. This is a machine that takes over some of the work of the heart while someone is waiting for the right donor heart match. Dr. Ross has headed the research for immunosuppressant medications and mechanical assist devices. His program performs 100 heart transplant surgeries annually.

Pediatric Heart Transplant at Seattle Children's

Heart Transplant Survival Rates

Survival rates are based on numerous factors. The U.S. rate is 88% initially but after 5 years it drops to 75%. Most transplant patients are able to return to work and a fairly normal life. Physical activity should be a part of life as well. Managing medications, therapy and a life-long plan of care if vital for a full life.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2019 Pamela Oglesby

Comments

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  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    3 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi MG Singh, I think age should probably impact the decision to get a heart transplant. For instance, if you are a teenager or even in your 20s, a heart transplant to save your life is probably worth the risk.

    I think if the surgery goes well and if the patient's body does not try to reject the organ, then I think someone lives a good life. All the questions you asked are probably the same questions that a person in heart failure asks themselves. A decision for one may not be the right decision for another person. You really asked some interesting questions. Thank you for your comments.

  • emge profile image

    MG Singh 

    3 weeks ago from Singapore

    I sometimes wonder how effective Heart transplanting is? Does the patient recover up to at least 90% of his active life or he remains an inert living being? Lastly is it worth it ? to go in for a heart transplant. After all, nobody is immortal. I am distinguishing heart transplants from open-heart surgery. Nice article and very stimulating.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Lora, It does sound like science fiction but it is real. I find it fascination also. I am glad you found the article informative. Thanks for commentings.

  • Lora Hollings profile image

    Lora Hollings 

    5 weeks ago

    This is a fascinating article, Pamela! It is simply amazing what they can do now with heart surgery. Implanting a heart from a deceased donor almost sounds like science fiction. I really enjoyed your article and learned much from reading it.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Umesh, Thank you so much for your very nice comments.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi MG Singh, I am glad this article was infomative for you. Thank you for your comments.

  • emge profile image

    MG Singh 

    5 weeks ago from Singapore

    A very informative article. I didn't know so many things. Thank you, Pamela.

  • bhattuc profile image

    Umesh Chandra Bhatt 

    5 weeks ago from Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, India

    Elaborate and well explained. Thanks.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Alyssa, You are definitely busy reading today and it is much appreciate. The heart transplants are fascinating to me as they save the life of someone who is otherwise dying. The history keeps expanding.

  • Alyssa Nichol profile image

    Alyssa 

    5 weeks ago from Ohio

    This is amazing! It's always exciting to hear about medical advancements. Thank you for sharing this and giving some background on the history of heart transplants. :)

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Chuck, You bring up some concerns that many of us have considered as it is expensive to get a heartg transplant. I appreciate your generous comments. I remember Dr. Christian Barnard's first success also. He had previously transplanted a heart into an ape.

    Thank you so much for your very nice comment.s

  • Chuck profile image

    Chuck Nugent 

    5 weeks ago from Tucson, Arizona

    This is a great Hub with a lot of good information. I remember the headlines when Dr. Christian Barnard performed the first successful human heart transplant. A couple of years later in a graduate economics course we were discussing monopolists and economic limits on a monopolist's profit potential The instructor insisted that there were real world limits (not laws or government regulations) that a monopolist could charge. After a few minutes of back and forth debate with the instructor successfully rebutting each example we came up with one of my fellow students came up with heart transplants citing the fact that, at that time Dr. Christian Barnard was the only person in the world who had successfully done heart transplants so, in the absence of laws or regulations, he could theoretically get a person dying of heart disease to pay any amount he wanted. All of us agreed and thought we had won the argument until the professor responded saying that the death was an alternative choice to extending one's life for an unknown amount of time by driving the person and their family deeply into a debt that the person and family could never get out from under. He made the point that we always have a choice although the choice can be between bad and worse as well as good or bad. Good work, great Hub.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    5 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Ms Dora, I agree that the medical advances do give us hope. Thank you for your comments. Have a nice week.

  • MsDora profile image

    Dora Weithers 

    6 weeks ago from The Caribbean

    Medical advances, especially in the area of heart transplants, give us hope. Thanks so much for sharing this information.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Audrey, I remember that astonsihing news also. Your comments are appreciated.

  • vocalcoach profile image

    Audrey Hunt 

    6 weeks ago from Idyllwild Ca.

    I remember when the first heart transplant was performed on a chimpanzee. This was astonishing news back then. Thanks for sharing this informative update about heart transplant..

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi John, I am glad you found this article interesting. Thanks for your comments John.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Devika, I'm glad you learned some new facts from this hub. People sure can live longer. I appreciate your comments.

  • DDE profile image

    Devika Primić 

    6 weeks ago from Dubrovnik, Croatia

    Interesting and useful to everyone. I learned a lot from this hub. This is new to me glad you wrote about it. People can live longer with new medicine techniques.

  • Jodah profile image

    John Hansen 

    6 weeks ago from Queensland Australia

    That is a wonderful new advancement. Thank you for researching and sharing this interesting article, Pamela.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Maria, If i understood the article correctly this is the first time that term has been used. I found the information very interesting as everything seems to advance so quickly.

    I appreciate your comments, as always. Love and hugs to you.

  • marcoujor profile image

    Maria Jordan 

    6 weeks ago from Jeffersonville PA

    "Donation after Circulatory Death" (DCD) is a new concept for me, Pamela.

    Thanks for this interesting and informative update on heart transplants - truly fascinating.

    Love and hugs, Maria

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Bill, I remember Barnard's surgery as well. It is truly amazing. Thanks for your comments.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Lorelei, The advances are wonderful and saving lives. Thank you so much for your comments. I live your 100 year comments.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Ruby, I agree that heart transplants are amazing. I very much appreciate your very nice comments.

  • always exploring profile image

    Ruby Jean Richert 

    6 weeks ago from Southern Illinois

    I find heart transplants amazing. We have developed techniques that were impossible a few years ago. Your research is also amazing. It was interesting to learn the statistics involving the heart, Well done!

  • Lady Lorelei profile image

    Lorelei Cohen 

    6 weeks ago from Canada

    It truly is amazing the advances in medicine that are now allowing us to extend our life. Here's to a happy 100 years for each of us to enjoy (or so I am hoping).

  • billybuc profile image

    Bill Holland 

    6 weeks ago from Olympia, WA

    I remember Barnard's one in 1967. I thought it to be one of the most amazing advancements in medicine. It still blows me away that they do that, and do it often.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Chris, I remember the first one too as a child. I was always fascinated with medical advances and that may be why I became a nurse. I very much appreciate your wonderful comments.

  • cam8510 profile image

    Chris Mills 

    6 weeks ago from Green Bay, Wisconsin...for now

    I remember hearing about the first heart transplants. Even as a child, I was amazed by the technology. I am a laboratory technician. I appreciate the research you put into this article. Very well done.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Rebecca, I appreciate your very nice comments.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Clive, Thanks for your comments.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Flourish, I think the time factor will improve, and more hearts will be available also. Thanks for commenting.

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Liz, The advancements are amazing. As a nurse I have taken care of numerous people who had open heart surgery, but they do so much more now. I appreciate your comments, Liz.

  • Eurofile profile image

    Liz Westwood 

    6 weeks ago from UK

    In my life time heart transplants have really taken off. I have vague memories of Dr. Christian Barnard. It is amazing how much the techniques and skills around heart transplants have been improved. I even hear of double heart and lung transplants sometimes. Similarly, but in a totally different branch of medicine, IVF has been developed from early trials to become quite commonplace.

  • FlourishAnyway profile image

    FlourishAnyway 

    6 weeks ago from USA

    I heard about this but you explain it well here. I understand this could revolutionize heart transplants because of the availability factor — the window of time to prepare the heart for transfer will allow time for greater travel if needed and thus more people can be potentially served.

  • clivewilliams profile image

    Clive Williams 

    6 weeks ago from Jamaica

    Thats magnificent. Great work

  • rebeccamealey profile image

    Rebecca Mealey 

    6 weeks ago from Northeastern Georgia, USA

    I've heard a lot about heart transplants and new technology lately. Interesting! Great article!

  • Pamela99 profile imageAUTHOR

    Pamela Oglesby 

    6 weeks ago from Sunny Florida

    Hi Eric, I am sorry to hear about your heart. I guess the study helps others but it sounds a little sad. I always want the best for you Eric. I appreciate your sharing.

  • Ericdierker profile image

    Eric Dierker 

    6 weeks ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A.

    Well knock me down and cover me with fool's gold. Now I possess a bad heart. Oh it ticks like a clock which doctors are confounded about. My bad heart stems from bad things I have done. They want my body for study and not for transplant.It is gifted to U of A, medical department.

    We must give what we can and sometimes that is our lives.

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