Anemia is a condition in the normal RBCs count decreases of decreased hemoglobin level in RBCs below normalis called anemia. Anemia develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells orhemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If you have too few or abnormal red blood cells, or your hemoglobin is abnormal or low, the cells in your body will not get enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia -- like fatigue -- occur because organs aren't getting what they need to function properly.
Anemia has three main causes: blood loss, lack of red blood cell production, and high rates of red blood cell destruction.
Conditions that may lead to anemia include
Colon polyps or colon cancer
A diet that does not have enough iron, folic acid or vitamin B12
Blood disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, or cancer
Aplastic anemia, a condition that can be inherited or acquired
G6PD deficiency, a metabolic disorder
Types of anemia
1 . Blood loss anemia
In this type of anemia Rbcs are small in sized and contain less amount of hemoglobin coused by chorinc blood loss(hemerhage)
2. Aplastic anemia
In this type of anemia Rbcs count is decreased due to bone marrow aplasia or lack of functioning bone marrow coused by bone marrow destruction or aplasia by Gama rayz,X-rays, chemicals and drugs.
In these types of anemia Rbcs rupture with the release of hemoglobin.following are types of hemolytic anemia.
A sickle cell anemia
In this type the Rbcs contain normal hemoglobin S than hb S precipitates into long crystals in low oxygen and these hb precipitates demages cell membrane and make it fragile so they easily rupture while passing through small capillaries
In this condition Rbcs are unable to synthesize adequate amount of alpha or beta-polypeptide chains from hb those cell which contain little amount of hb this hb precipitates into hard crystals in result cell become small and fragile and rupture while passing through tissues.
Anemia can make you feel tired, cold, dizzy, and irritable. You may be short of breath or have a headache.
Anemia Caused by Blood Loss
Red blood cells can be lost through bleeding, which often can occur slowly over a long period of time, and can go undetected. This kind of chronic bleeding commonly results from the following:
Gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcers, hemorrhoids, gastritis (inflammation of thestomach), and cancer
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirinor ibuprofen, which can cause ulcers and gastritis
Menstruation and childbirth in women, especially if menstrual bleeding is excessive and if there are multiple pregnancies
A doctor might decide to put you on a diet that helps with the production of healthy red blood cells. You might even need to take regular supplements or medications to complement your diet.
To prevent becoming anemic, it can be helpful to eat foods that are rich in iron, vitamin B12, and foliate. For some people, these foods do not adequately prevent against anemia. A doctor might choose to put you on a regular vitamin and supplement regimen. Folic acid, iron, and vitamin B6 are supplements that the doctor might ask you to take. The type of supplements that you take is related to the type of anemia that you develop or are likely to develop. For example, a person who is iron deficient may not necessarily benefit from a vitamin B12 supplement.
Your doctor will diagnose anemia with a physical exam and blood tests. Treatment depends on the kind of anemia you have.