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Atropa Belladonna

Updated on April 12, 2011

Belladonna is a flowering plant (angiosperm dicots) member, such as tomato and potato, the important family Solanaceae.It is a herbal plant.
The scientific name, Atropa belladonna, derived from its lethal effects and use cosmetics:
Atropos is the name of Moira in Greek mythology who cuts the thread of life, this is a reminder that the ingestion of berries of this plant causes death.
The specific epithet belladonna refers to a practice in the Renaissance: the ladies used this plant to show off and shine in the eyes by the ability of the pupil dilated.

Morphology

Herbaceous and perennial, with a big rhizome from which there is a strong stem, erect and branched, with heights between 70-150 cm.
The leaves are simple, petiolate, ovate-lanceolate, alternate in the upper leaves smaller, as the stem, are covered with glandular hairs responsible for the unpleasant odor emanated from the plant.


The flowers are hermaphrodite, axillary and droopy, have a cup to 5 5 to sepals and a corolla campanulate-tubular-shaped petals and deep purple color, the androecium consists of five stamens with anthers well developed, the harem of an ovary biloculare with unique style and bifid stigma.


Belladonna flowers in summer, and pollination is entomophilous (by insects). The fruits are shiny black berries, small, surrounded by glass that, during maturation, is increased by opening a star.

Despite the attractive appearance and pleasant taste, the berries are poisonous to humans and ingestion may cause a decrease in sensitivity, forms of delirium, thirst, vomiting, followed, in severe cases, convulsions and death.

Habitat

 The sporadic belladonna grows in mountainous and submontane up to an altitude of 1400 meters. It prefers calcareous soils and the cool shady forest edges, such as beech. In the wild, is present in central Europe, northern Africa and western Asia to Pakistan. In Italy you can find in the forests of the Alps and Apennines, Sicily, where it is known as "sulatra"(at least in the area north of Syracuse), is widely available even in the citrus groves in the hills around 400 meters; the juice of the leaves is used as a remedy for wasp stings.

Uses

Using herbal

Belladonna is used in herbal medicine since time immemorial by doctors for its antispasmodic qualities.

Chemical structure of the plant is the main therapeutic dell'atropinaL'ingrediente atropine or DL-giusciamina. It is found in all the Solanaceae: in therapeutically relevant doses in Datura stramonium, Hyoscyamus niger, Solanum niger, in lower doses in crops such as potatoes and tomatoes.

In academic medicine (learned) atropine alone, it is still used as a pupil dilator muscle relaxant and as p. e. prior to surgery.

Using homeopathic

According to homeopathy pills derived from belladonna should have therapeutic effects for the following diseases:

1.faringiti, nasopharyngitis, tracheobronchitis and tonsillitis in which we feel the need to swallow all the time
2.febbre during influenza, infantile convulsions with high fever
3.Cefalea vasomotor violent, button
4.Processi local inflammatory reddening with "brilliant", swelling, intense heat and radiation, acute pain, violent and button
5.Attacchi of delirium, hypersensitivity to noise and bright light.

Pharmacognosy

The leaves contain belladonna alkaloids such as atropine, scopolamine, L-giusciamina, with a total content of min. 0.3%. In the roots reach min. 0.5%. The overall effect is parasimpatolitico / anticholinergic due to competitive inhibition of the neuromuscular transmitter acetylcholine receptor. This affects mainly the effect muscarinic antagonism (less than the nicotinic ganglia and neuromuscular terminal). The effect is then routed to the parasympathetic autonomic smooth muscle of peripheral and central nervous system:

· gastrointestinal and biliary tract: failure of organs to smooth muscle spasmolytic

· heart: positive chronotropic and dromotropic

· bronchi: expansion, spasmolisi

· central nervous parasimapatico stimulating effects on tremor and muscular rigidity (PD)

Directions

according to the Handbook of drugs from the Italian Ministry of Health belladonna is indicated under the headings of:

Antiemorroidari soothing:

Antimuscarinic:

The Commission and the Ministry of Health the Germanic Atropa belladonna is indicated against:

and spasms of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary colic

popular herbal medicine according to the experience as well:

asma, dismenorrea

tremor

Contraindications

Tachicardiaco rhythm disorders, prostatic hyperplasia, glaucoma, acute pulmonary edema and mechanical stenosis in the gastrointestinal tract.

Side Effects

dry mouth, decreased sweating and

(In overdose): accommodation disturbances, dryness and rubor dermal, tachycardia, difficulty urinating, hallucinations and were spastic.

Anatomic lesions

Or characteristics are not constant, generally consist of an intense congestion of the lungs and abdominal organs, retina, and the meninges of the brain associated with bleeding: in one case observed by Rosenberg, the brain, the cerebellum and medulla oblongata showed several outbreaks of capillary bleeding.

Interaction

Amplification of the anticholinergic effects of tricyclic antidepressants, amantadine and quinidine.

Atropine poisoning (Solanaceae)

The toxic doses are individually very variable. Children react to the usually more sensitive than adults.

Symptoms of poisoning are:

· dry mucous membranes, difficulty speaking and swallowing

· mydriatic pupils (open, no glare) with paralysis of accommodation and hypersensitivity to light the subject

· dry skin and redness

· fever, tachycardia

· intestinal atony

· centralnervosa excitation (restlessness, confusion, ev. hallucinations and spasms)

· later, drowsiness, coma and respiratory arrest

Symptoms of poisoning - mostly rise up very quickly, and are characterized by a sense of barrenness, dryness and narrowing in the mouth and throat, nausea and rarely vomiting, dilated pupils with insensitivity to light, then amaurosis and amblyopia; staggering gait (the sick seem intoxicated and can not stand up), followed by dizziness fainting, eyes bulging, bloodshot eyes fixed, stupid or cruel; wrist frequent, small or full and hard, dyspnea, involuntary release of feces and urine (paralysis of sphincters). The skin is hot, the seat of intense itching, covered with a rash scarlatiniform. In children are noted routinely trismus and convulsions in adults gay or furious delirium with hallucinations, followed by coma, convulsions, sometimes a tendency to bite, death by general paralysis in 24-36 hours. Where there has been a non-lethal slow and gradual improvement of symptoms and sometimes fever with profuse sweating occurs, and recovery usually occurs after 4-8 days. The atropine poisoning is not different from that for belladonna for a more rapid progression.

Treatment Of Poisoning

· Differential diagnosis of children: infectious diseases

· First Aid: gastric emptying, physostigmine. Care as a central anticholinergic syndrome

Care

Emetic, purgative, stomach pump. The antagonists of atropine are mainly pilocarpine, morphine and chloral hydrate. Morphine is indicated only in the stage of excitement, and not that of the terminal collapse: in this period can be used chloral hydrate, but warned that the heart is further weakened by chloral by morphine. Do not forget you will be expected to stimulants (coffee, alcohol, ether, etc.). Rivulsivi and the skin (cold effusion on the head, poultices on the chest and calves etc...)

 

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    • profile image

      Journey 

      3 years ago

      Wait, I cannot fathom it being so stdrgihtfoawarr.

    • profile image

      Mariane 

      3 years ago

      Translated into Spanish please?!?i need this treaslatnd into spanish please i went on holiday to northeast spain last summer to have fun with my family. While i was there i sunbathed and swam in the swimming pool. i thought it was fantastic while we were over there i had so much fun that i lost track of time. While i was there, we went to some shops, my little sister learn't how to go horse riding and my other sister went to dance classes. I took photos of them to take back and treasure of our first holiday. I visited many places of interests like monument shops and clothes shops. While we were away i sent lots of text messages to my friends telling them about what it was like each day over there. They asked how it was and each time they asked i replied saying it was wonderful. The weather was good over there at times, any other time it was hot and i also met many people. While we were away, we stayed in a five star hotel that had waiters that were English. It was located next to a beach just off the coast, it was very welcoming and helpful with the luggage. The furniture was very comfortable and apparently the hotel was new, that was why it was a five star hotel. It wasn't expensive at all nor was it cheap, the hotel had a lovely bar, restaurant, cafe9 and an indoor heated pool. The best thing about the holiday was that i got to sunbathe and go shopping in the centre of the city. I spent 2 weeks in Spain and we got there by plane, the flight lasted four hours. Luckily when we got to the hotel it was very modern, and the waiters wore uniform. Some clients were English, and the waiters were also English. While i was there i met a lot of young people, they were very nice and i improved on my spanish while i was there to. It was sunny for the 2 weeks, you could do all sorts over there. My parents reserved a double room with a double bed, and a single room with a single bed for me. My two little sisters had one of the rooms in the double bedroom and they shared a double bed and my parents had the other room. We stayed for thirteen nights and fourteen days, the hotel room had a bath and a balcony, so i was very pleased about that. The total cost including room service, lunch, breakfast and tea was three thousand euros for the whole two weeks. We got internet access, and the reception closed at 10pm and opened at 6am. There is no animals allowed in the hotel incase customers had allergies to them. I am hoping to go back next year as at the moment i am already bored (and losing my loovely brown tan).

    • profile image

      Milena 

      3 years ago

      an idiot if you think the *impact* is any different.Pirate dtiirtbusion of songs back in the day was very distributed. You'd give it to four friends, they'd give it to three friends, and so on and so on. No one person shared with all that many people, but the net impact of that dtiirtbusion tree was that a LOT of people got pirated tapes. Of course just as with today some of those recipients would be like ah, that sucks and copy something else over the tape, deleting it in the process and some folks would be like ah, that rules! and go buy a copy, and then you'd have the VERY OCCASIONAL douchebag who was like That rules, and I could buy a copy but I'm not going to. It's no different in that respect to today's downloaders. Some of them listen to an MP3 and go bah, that sucks, it's taking up disk space and delete it, and some are like Wow, that rules! and go hit iTunes or Amazon and grab a copy, and some much smaller percentage of people are douchebags who say that's cool, and I could buy it, but I'm not going to. Artists in a declining market are desperate to try and find Someone to blame for their declining sales numbers. It's natural. And for folks who aren't actually savvy about the way things work online, or in the minds of people who don't have four houses and twelve cars, people who download tracks look like an easy target.But ponder this: If I download your album for kicks, think it sucks, and delete it, have I stolen from you? Answer: No. Because I was never going to buy your album anyway, so I haven't taken jack-squat from you.How about this one: If I've never heard of you before, but I stumble upon your album on some download site and download it, and I *like* it, and I *keep* it? Have I caused you damages? Dunno. At face value, it seems an easy yes , but if it hadn't been for that download site, I hadn't heard of you, so you weren't going to get any revenue from me anyway. So your expected revenue without the download is $0.00, and your revenue with the download is $0.00. A net loss of $0.00. I also object to the use of the word stealing in general when it comes to illicit music downloading. Stealing actually has a legal definition that downloading doesn't come close to matching. Musicians do, absolutely, have the right to prosper from their work. They even have the legal right to control the dtiirtbusion channels for their work and lock them down in any way they see fit. But they don't get to claim they're materially-harmed when in most cases they're actually not.PS if you REALLY want to defend Lars' position versus Napster, you're going to have an uphill battle. Even Lars regrets it these days, and has said so in interviews.

    • daffodil2010 profile imageAUTHOR

      daffodil2010 

      7 years ago

      thank you all

    • thebluestar profile image

      Annette Donaldson 

      7 years ago from Northern Ireland

      Very informative and useful hub. I am happy to meet another alternative therapy enthusiast.

    • travel_man1971 profile image

      Ireno Alcala 

      7 years ago from Bicol, Philippines

      Thanks for sharing.

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