ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Brain twisters:Peyotes, Psilocybes, Cannabis and LSD

Updated on June 1, 2016
rodrigo sebidos profile image

The author is a graduate of Agriculture at the University of the Philippines.A teacher at the Visayas State University, Baybay City, Leyte.

FLORAL design that attract POLLINATORS
FLORAL design that attract POLLINATORS

Keywords:

Drugs.Hallucinogens.Psychoactive. Psychedelic.Brain. Neurotransmitter. Braintwister. Dissociative. Ancient History. Behavior. Drug Addiction.

Quote from JFK
Quote from JFK

Introduction

The coming off 21st century ushered the birth of a multi-billion dollar industry-drugs, that fuels violence and crime like no other substance on the planet. Considered also as the "white gold" that brought vast wealth to a few and untold misery to millions of human beings. Broadly categorized as Hallucinogenic and Dissociative drugs (NIH-NIDA,2014, USDA Forest Service,2014, Nichols, 2004) Psychoactive (History Cooperative, 2015), and Psychedelic drugs (EHSAS, 2015) among others and have been defined in many ways, moreover, regardless of what they are, they have a commonality of effects to humans and manifested as,somatic symptoms, perceptual symptoms, and psychic symptoms and boil down to the same site of action- the Brain, the very center of Human Nervous System. Likely, the terms mentioned are interchangeably used in the discussion and again can be further decomposed as "Brain twisters".

Ancient god -XOCHPILLI of Mesoamerica
Ancient god -XOCHPILLI of Mesoamerica

Ancient history

Human beings has been associated with drugs since the Neolithic era, during the hunting/gathering phase of their existence may have accidentally introduced them to mushrooms in the meadows or in the forest floors, the "harvest of food" given by gods and this was manifested in their figurines, the mushroom head of their gods, attest to their veneration and worship of the mushroom.The Aztec god- Xochpilli also known as the "Prince of Flowers"was the Mesoamerican god of summer, flower, pleasure, love, dancing, painting, feasting, and creativity in other words a vibrant symbol of all good things in life. The statue of Xochpilli however, carry a decorative symbol of a mushroom- Psilocybe sp. a hallucinogenic mushroom use in their religious rituals to communicate with Xochpilli spiritually. Semilar figures

Mushroom head of the Ancient gods
Mushroom head of the Ancient gods

were also discovered in Guatemala City dating 100-300 BC years old.The native Indians used Peyote cactus while the Mayans was hooked to the mushroom Psilocybe, and the Chinese is credited to have the earliest record of the use of psychoactive drug Cannabis (3,000 BC). The Psychedelic drug like Soma was not foreign to ancient Indians as venerated in their Vedic hymns. Moreover, the use of these "brain twisters" coincide with exact moment that is during religious ceremony, to ask favor, commune with the spirits among others is the responsibility or under the supervision of the Shamans or Priests.to interpret "visions" during the state of altered perception,thoughts or feelings that are not experienced otherwise in dreams and religious exaltation.

Today, these "brain twisters"- hallucinogens, dissociative, psychoactive, or psychedelic drugs are branded by law enforcement as the most dangerous drugs.

Most Dangerous Drugs as compiled by The Lancet, 2010
Most Dangerous Drugs as compiled by The Lancet, 2010

Dangerous drugs- What are they?

The United States Enforcement Agency, classified dangerous drugs that falls in these three categories; a) drugs that has no current medical value in the US, b) there is a lack of safety of the drug even under medical supervision, c) the substance has potential for abuse. So, drugs labelled as hallucinogenic, dissociative, psychoactive and or psychedelic are considered dangerous. For the sake of discussion and clarity, Peyotes, Psilocybes, Cannabis, and LSD will be only considered. Peyote is a cactus plant, Psilocybe is a mushroom, Cannabis, a shrub and LSD is a drug derived from Lysergic acid from a fungal infection of the grains of rye or wheat called Ergot. Overall, we have two example from the Kingdom Plantae and also two from the Kingdom Fungi. To avoid confusing terms, we shall label them all as Brain Twisters(BI) in a lay man's terms.

.

Clinical effects of Hallucinogens

(click column header to sort results)
Somatic symptoms  
Perceptual symptoms  
Psychic symptoms  
dizzeness, nausea
altered shapes and colors and rarely synesthesia
altrerations in moods (happy, sad, irritable at varying times)
weakness, parenthesia
dfficulty in focusing on objects
tension, distorted time sense
tremors, blurred vision
sharpened sense of hearing
difficulty in expressing thoughts
 
 
 
 
 
 
Source: Nichols, D.E, 2004

According to Nichols (2004), the clinical effects of hallucinogens can be categorized into; somatic, perceptual and psychic symptoms. The table shows the various symptoms.It should be noted that hallucinogens (brain twisters) have a unique and powerful ability to affect the human psyche. They may alter one's concept of reality, may change one's vision of life and death and can challenge one's most cherished beliefs (Ibid).

Th most significant dangers of BI's, however, appears primarily in their psychological effects. The BI's can induce a distortion of experiences, otherwise observed only in psychoses such as alleviation of cognitive functions and depersonalisation. They can catalyze the onset of psychosis as depression which can sometimes lead to suicide or bodily harm.

Caves are places where psychedelic rituals are performed by Shamans
Caves are places where psychedelic rituals are performed by Shamans
 Psychoactive effects -"See" sounds and "Hear" colors?
Psychoactive effects -"See" sounds and "Hear" colors?
Mescaline cactus
Mescaline cactus

The nature of Brain Twisters (BT's)

The brain twisters (BT's) such as Peyotes, Psilocybes, Cannabis and LSD are among the oldest drugs used by a man that has the ability to alter human perception and thinking. The BT's has been used in medical, social, and religious practices, moreover, law enforcer called them dangerous drugs (NIH-NIDA,2014).

Peyotes (mescaline), also known as buttons, cactus, mesc among others.

  • a small spineless cactus scientifically called Lophophora williamsii
  • mescaline is the active ingredients
  • used by the natives in Northern Mexico and the Southwestern United States in their religious ceremony
  • the top or "Crown" of the Peyote cactus is disc- shaped buttons and are cut-out, dried and usually chewed.
  • also, soaked in water to produce an intoxicating liquid, the extract is bitter
  • some prefer tea by boiling the plant for several hours
  • mescaline can be produced by laboratory synthesis

Strophoria cubensis Cone  Mushrooms
Strophoria cubensis Cone Mushrooms

Psilocybe or magic mushrooms (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyl-tryptamine)

  • also known as magic mushrooms, shrooms, boomer, or the little smoke
  • extracted from a certain type of mushroom found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of South America, Mexico and The United States
  • There are several species of Psilocybe, example Strophoria cubensis.
  • It appears that the effects of psychoactive compound vary from species to species
  • the active compound is Psilocybin
  • during religious ceremony Psilocybin is ingested, it can be dried or fresh and eaten raw
  • picking of this mushroom is dangerous if one is not familiar with it, might pick-up the wrong one that may cause serious harm when ingested


Cannabis Hemp
Cannabis Hemp
Origin and Spread of Cannabis spp.
Origin and Spread of Cannabis spp.
Paper from Cannabis
Paper from Cannabis

Cannabis Spp.

  • Believed to have originated from Central Asia of the old world but has strongly spread across Asia and the New World
  • Brain twister, Cannabis is composed of several species occurring worldwide.The psychoactive compound is called Cannabinol found in Marihuana and Hashish, is capable of psychedelic effects on humans.
  • Considered as "social drug" or "recreational drug" is popular among young and adults worldwide
  • One of the World's best cordage is Cannabis hemp and paper before the advent of synthetic ropes and other fiber crops until it was banned.
  • Despite prohibition, there is an increasing demand for Cannabis in medicine for a variety of disorder, including alcoholism, heroin and amphetamine dependence, emotional disturbance and even glaucoma (Furst, 1976)
  • The early use of Cannabis in medicine can be traced in Chinese Pharmacology dated 2,737 BC during the reign of the legendary Chinese Emperor Shen Nung. Considered as the "Gateway" to other addictive drugs.


Comparison of psychoactive drugs
Comparison of psychoactive drugs

LSD- lysergic acid diethylamide

  • Discovered in 1938 by one of the Swiss Pharmaceutical Laboratory in Europe from one of its derivative Lysergic Acid.
  • Lysergic acid was isolated from a fungal disease called Ergot that attacks the grains of Rye and wheat
  • The psychedelic effects of brain twister LSD reside on its ability to block the function neurotransmitter Serotonin in the Brain
  • also, known as acid, blotter, doses, hits, microdots, sugar cubes, tops, tabs, and window panes is the most potent mood and perception-altering hallucinogenic drug. Considered as the Psychedelic drug of the 60's.


The Ancient Veneration of HAllucenogens
The Ancient Veneration of HAllucenogens
The Central Nervous System
The Central Nervous System
Important  Parts of the Brain
Important Parts of the Brain

Site of action- The Human Brain

The human brain is the most complex organ of the human body.This three-quarter pound mass of gray and white matter sits at the center of all human activity- to drive a car, to enjoy meal, to breath, to create a masterpiece, and to enjoy everyday activities. In other words, the brain regulates the body's basic functions, enables one to interpret and respond to experiences, and shapes thoughts, emotion, and behavior (NIH-NIDA, 2014).

To understand how the nervous system works, the brain is composed of different parts and assume varied functions but at the same time is also the site of action for BT's. Brain areas affected by BT's:

  • The Brain Stem. Controls basic function critical to life such as- heart rate, breathing, and sleeping
  • The Cerebral Cortex. Different areas process information from the senses, enabling us to see, feel, hear, and taste. The front part of the cortex or forebrain is the thinking center of the brain. It powers our ability to think, plan, solve problems and make decisions.
  • The Limbic System. The center for the "reward system" Control and regulate our ability to feel pleasure and to protect behaviors that are critical to our survival. Is activated by healthy life sustaining activities such as eating and socializing but can be activated by drug abuse. Responsible for our perception of other emotions both positive and negative, which explains the mood altering properties of many drugs.


Peyote Ceremony in the secret land of Wirikuta
Peyote Ceremony in the secret land of Wirikuta
Chemical structure of  some Brain twisters
Chemical structure of some Brain twisters
Messages are passed to the Neurons
Messages are passed to the Neurons

How do brain twisters (BT's) subvert the brain?

A normal brain is a communication center composed of billions of neurons or nerve cells.Networks of neurons carry the messages as electrical impulse throughout the nervous system. The message is brought to the nerve cells through a chemical messenger -Dopamine or Serotonin moreover the two messenger may have similar area of action in the brain, but different function or effects for instance:

  • The Dopamine Pathway. Controls reward(motivation),pleasure, euphoria, motor function (fine tuning), compulsion and preservation.
  • The Serotonin Pathway. Controls mood, memory processing, sleep, and cognition

Many brain twisters carry similar chemical structure that fits the receptor cells. Since the passage is blocked the messenger can not enter. Then, brain twister assumed the function of either Dopamine or Serotonin. For instance, brain twister-LSD and Psilocybin or Psilocin (the active ingredient in Psilocybes) have a similar chemical structure with Serotonin, while Mescaline from Peyote cactus sequesters Dopamine receptor cells. It appears favorable, but the user ingested, smoked, and or drink more than the amount beyond the normal capacity of the brain.The brain is loaded caused the system to overload- "high wire or short circuit".Therefore, the message is jumbled as manifested in changes in mood, thinking, and behavior of the user.

State of the Brain under Psychoactive Condition
State of the Brain under Psychoactive Condition

The Short- term effects of Brain Twisters (BT's)

Upon ingestion, smoke and or drink the BT's, the active ingredient is transformed into psychoactive compounds. Their effects are manifested in the change in mood, perception and or behavior of the user. The National Institute of Health (NIH) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) listed the short-term effects of BT's -Peyote, Psilocybes, Cannabis, and LSD

LSD.

  • Increased blood pressure, heart rate, and body temperature
  • Dizziness and sleepiness
  • Loss of appetite, dry mouth and sweating
  • Numbness, weakness and tremors
  • Impulsive and rapid emotional shift from fear to euphoria with a transition is rapid that the user may seem to experience several emotions simultaneously.

Psilocybe

  • Feeling of relaxation (similar to the effects of low doses of Marihuana)
  • Nervousness, paranoia, and panic reaction
  • Introspective/ spiritual experiences
  • Misidentification of poisonous mushroom resembling Psilocybe could lead to potentially fatal poisoning



Peyote

  • Increase heart rate
  • uncoordinated movement (Ataxia)
  • Profound sweating
  • Flushing

Cannabis

  • Feeling anxious and agitated
  • Having slow reaction time or trouble to pay attention
  • Feeling euphoric and disinhibited and having altered sense of time
  • Having limited judgement abilities
  • Experiencing acoustic, optic, or tactile illusion, experiencing feelings of being separate from the body or reality
  • Exhibiting overall impaired physical and mental performance
  • Experiencing hallucinations or paranoid delusions

Conclusion


Braintwisters (BT's) such as LSD, Peyote, Psilocybe, and Cannabis among others is a global drug industry that has destroyed humans and had given misery for others. Their ability to subvert or mimic brain function reside on their chemical structure that is quite similar to the neurotransmitters of the brain.The psychoactive ingredient had a similar site of action for senses, cognitive, and behavior among others but alter these function as manifested in the change in mood, perception, and behavior of the user. Drug addiction will be always with us that will permeate and subvert our social, political and economic status as a nation. This is not only the fight of the law enforcing agency but the fight for all. Examining some of the reasons why people turn to drugs, we start with the Family. The family as the basic unit of society will be the first to influence the behavior of the individual. A family that lacks communication, love, and understanding, surely will not yield good children or persons. As young adults or adolescents, they are vulnerable to drugs and addiction. Why do young people turn to drugs? To feel good, to feel better, to do better, or to be accepted are sought outside the family. The strength of the family in moulding a better person is absent and drugs become the comfort and companion of the unguided.

References

Scholarly Articles:

A hallucinogenic history of psychoactive drugs. History Cooperative, 2015. (www.google.com)

Bilzor. The neuropharmacology of hallucinogens- a technical review. EROWID.org. August 2005.

Drugs, brain, and behavior: The Science of Addiction. NIH-NIDA, US Department of Health and Human Services.July 2014.

Drug Facts: Hallucinogens-LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP.Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publication/drugfacts/Hallucinoges. September 2, 2015.

Furst, P.1976. Hallucinogens and culture. Chandler and Sharp Publications.149 pp. Recovered from www.google.com. September 2015.

Hallucinogens and Dissociative drugs.The National Institute of Health (NIH) and The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), US Department of Health and Human Services. February 2015.

  • How widespread is the abuse of hallucinogenic and dissociative drugs?
  • Why do people take hallucinogenic or dissociative drugs?
  • How do hallucinogens (LSD, Psilocybe, Peyote, DMT, and Ayahuasca) affect the brain and body?
  • What are the effects of common dissociative drugs in the brain and body

Hallucinogens. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Hallucinogens. USDA Forest Service.

Lee, A. 2014. Float tanks and their application within cognitive science.(www.google.com)

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Hallucinogens-LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/hallucinogens. September 2015.

Nichols, D, E. 2004. Hallucinogens, Pharmacology and Therapeutics 101: 131-181.






Looking for a Low carbs diet?- Try this!
Looking for a Low carbs diet?- Try this!

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • rodrigo sebidos profile imageAUTHOR

      Rodrigo Sebidos 

      3 years ago from Zone2 Brgy.Guadalupe, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines

      Thanks for your kind observation, I've refrained discussing the many medical applications of this drugs for reasons that are beyond the scope of this article. Yes. we know now how the ancients used the drugs and the benefits derived from using it. In fact, today medicine are now considering marijuana to be legalized due its potential cure for mental disorders, but what is dangerous as discussed in this article if it is ABUSE, especially, if it falls on the hands of minors. Remember that some of these are "Gateway drugs" and we know the danger of these drugs if abused? Do you like a society full of drug addicts?

    • Michaela Osiecki profile image

      Michaela 

      3 years ago from USA

      I disagree that drugs of this nature are inherently bad. Yes, they do alter a person's psyche, but is that necessarily a negative thing? Many of the people I've interviewed that have engaged in the use of hallucinogenic drugs report having a mind-blowing experience that has dissolved the ego and allowed them to feel in connection with nature and the Divine. It is rare, when taken properly, to have a truly bad trip.

      Weed, on the other hand, has reportedly been used to treat a variety of disorders - including anxiety as it is a very calming substance and not one that promotes violence or aggression.

      I suggest that you have a look at some of Terrence McKenna's work, he's done a lot of research on hallucinogenics and what happens to people on them.

    • rodrigo sebidos profile imageAUTHOR

      Rodrigo Sebidos 

      3 years ago from Zone2 Brgy.Guadalupe, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines

      Thanks Kathleen for your time reading this hub.

    • rodrigo sebidos profile imageAUTHOR

      Rodrigo Sebidos 

      3 years ago from Zone2 Brgy.Guadalupe, Baybay City, Leyte, Philippines

      Thanks Kathleen for your time reading this hub.

    • profile image

      Kathleen Kerswig 

      3 years ago

      This is a hot topic and you did a thorough job with presenting the information. I am a recovery coach and I can honestly say that addiction to these substances does not discriminate. It doesn't matter where a person is from or how much money they have. Addiction can be devastating but there are solutions if a person is willing to get help. Thank you for sharing on such a powerful topic. Blessings!

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)