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Updated on September 10, 2009


Cramp is due to sudden involunatary and painfull contraction of a voluntary muscle or group of muscles.  It may be caused in several ways for example, by chilling during exercise as in bathing.  Cramp also occurs when there has been excessive loss of fluid from acute diarrhoca, excessive vomiting or sweating. Some people are more prone to cramp than others.


Massage the affected part and apply warmth.  If there has been excessive loss of fluid give copious draughts of water to which has been added half a teaspoon of salt or two tumblers of water.


This is due to a blow in the upper part of the abdomen affecting the Solar Plexus  and fainting or even collapse may result.


1.      Apply the general rules for the treatment of unconsciousness.

2.      Draw up the casualty’s knees and gently massage the abdomen.

3.      Keep him lying down quietly until he is comfortable and the circulation is fully restored.


Stitch is a painful spasm of the diaphragm. It occurs during games and running, particularly if the person is not in training.


If not immediately relieved by rest give sips of hot water and gently rub the affected 


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