- Diseases, Disorders & Conditions
Cancer Cure: Chemotherapy and Gene Therapy Compared
Both chemotherapy and gene therapy use free radicals to kill cancer cells
Chemotherapyis the use of drugs to treat cancer. It is given by injection or by mouth; delivered to all parts of the body by the blood. Its active ingredient is mostly singlet oxygen (Pressman, A. H. D.C., Ph.D. C.C.N. with S. Buff. Glutathione: The Ultimate Antioxidant.1998).
Singlet oxygen was formerly a molecular oxygen with two unpaired electrons in its outermost orbital spinning around the nucleus in parallel direction. When extra energy from the sun hits molecular oxygen, the spin of one unpaired electron is reversed. So singlet oxygen has two unpaired electrons in its outermost orbital spinning in opposite directions.
The direction of spin of unpaired electrons is important. An unpaired electron is unstable and to attain stability it grabs an electron of another molecule that belongs to a tissue. The tissue whose electron is grabbed is injured that results in mutation then tumor or cancer.
Molecular oxygen grabs one electron at a time owing to parallel spin of unpaired electrons. Singlet oxygen grabs two electrons at the same time owing to opposite spin of unpaired electrons. That is why singlet oxygen is more destructive than molecular oxygen.
Conventional medicine snubs free radicals as cause of disease. That is why it does not mention the involvement of free radicals in chemotherapy. One implication of this snobbery is that conventional medicine has not identified the free radicals and their derivatives that each of the several chemo drugs produce. Furthermore, conventional medicine has not monitored specific effects of free radicals and derivatives on cancer cells and healthy cells.
Examples of free radicals are atomic oxygen, molecular oxygen, superoxide, ozone, hydroxyl radical. Examples of free radical derivatives are hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxide, peroxynitrite, alkoxy radical, nitrous oxide, carbon tetrachloride, nitrosamine, nitrobenzene and more. It is highly probable that conventional medicine knows these free radicals and their derivatives but does not mention them for public knowledge. Journals and books in conventional medicine mention only that cancer is caused by mutation. But they will not mention the cause of mutation. Howard Kaufman, MD in his book “The Melanoma Handbook” wrote that the cause of melanoma (skin cancer) is mutation but did not mention free radicals. He wrote though that a person does not need a sun rays blocker if he takes vitamin E.
He did not say that ultraviolet rays of the sun excite electrons of molecular oxygen, turn it into singlet oxygen or excite electrons of water and produce hydroxyl radical. Singlet oxygen and hydroxyl radical burn the skin. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that neutralizes free radicals and derivatives.
Carolyn Kaelen, author of "Living through Breast Cancer," said that cancer is due to damage to DNA then proceeded to discuss the anatomy of the breast. She did not mention what causes damage to DNA.
Genetics books mention spontaneous causes (mutation during meiosis) and sporadic causes (environmental). But even one genetics book that barely mentions free radicals is “Human Heredity, Principles and Issues” by Michael Cummings. One medical doctor who openly acknowledges free radicals as causes of disease is Jeffrey Fisher, MD in his book “Rx 2000” (1992).
Gene therapy is the use of genes to cure cancer. Genes are delivered by the protein envelop of a virus to the cancer cell. Three genes are involved. One, the human gene that controls the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase is cloned from a human DNA. Two, the gene of virus that controls the production of protein envelop is used. Three, the gene that controls the production of antibody (scFv) is delivered. This antibody changes the sensitivity of the surface of cancer cells to enable them to recognize the protein envelop. The result is that the protein envelop can attach to the cancer cell. These three genes are bound together with the use of hydrogen bonds. Then they are linked together with the use of ligase enzyme. The result is a recombinant DNA (Hassid, A. Editor. Nitric Oxide Protocols. 2004).
Recombinant DNA is delivered like vaccine. The protein envelop attaches to cancer cells. The human gene leaves the protein envelop and incorporates itself in the chromosomes of cancer cells. Once human gene gets inside the cancer cell it induces the production of iNOS that produces nitric oxide that kills the cancer cell.
The active agent of chemotherapy are free radicals, mostly singlet oxygen. The active agent of gene therapy is also a free radical, nitric oxide. To repeat singlet oxygen and nitric oxide (as produced by iNOS) kill cancer cells and healthy cells.
[There are other two kinds of nitric oxide that do not kill cells. One is the nitric oxide produced by the endothelium nitric oxide synthase that is a messenger; it tells the inner wall of the artery to dilate. Dilation results in the alleviation of angina or heart attack or stroke. The other is nitric oxide produced by the neuron nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) that also dilates arteries, partly responsible for the restoration of defective male sex organ.]
The chemo drug is delivered by the blood. The blood gets to all parts of the body, to cancer cells and healthy cells. The delivery by a chemo drug is not very specific; it is like a shotgun that sprays a lot of bullets on a wide area around target. That is why chemo kills both cancer cells and healthy cells. Fast growing human cells, like blood cells and hair follicle cells, are vulnerable to chemo drugs. The patient is weakened owing to destruction of blood; loses hair because hair follicles are destroyed. Chemo sessions are paced far apart to enable new blood to replace those destroyed by the previous session. Hair follicles will recover. Besides, chemo in overdose also causes tumor or cancer. Healthy cells hit by free radicals mutate resulting in tumor or cancer. The theoretical and practical problems with chemo are that the delivery is not very specific.
In gene therapy, delivery of the genes is very specific. First, each cancer cell exudes a marker that is the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Second, the antibody (monoclonal clone F11-39, form scFv) modifies the surface of the cancer cell such that it recognizes and attaches only to the cell marked by CEA. This antibody does not attach to healthy cells. Third, the carrier (protein envelop) does not contain RNA; it cannot infect and multiply.
Specificity of the delivery system is very important.
I have two Hubs on these topics: “Better than chemotherapy: new method to cure cancer,” and “Patient-friendly and safe is the new cancer cure.”
Comparison of costs between chemo and gene therapy has to wait because gene therapy formulations are not yet out in the market.
Don't be scared by recombinant DNA. You have been taking its products perhaps without your consent or knowledge. A lot of antibiotics are produced by recombinant DNA. Coenzyme Q10 being sold in the counter is produced by recombinant DNA, so is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, a blood clot dissolver that is more effective than streptokinase in remedying stroke. Soya in the United States is a genetically modified organism (GMO) by recombinant DNA, so is Btcorn engineered and marketed by Monsanto. Bt means Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium, whose genes are incorporated into the chromosomes of corn. Bt is a natural pesticide so that Btcorn is resistant to pests like stem borer. (The safety of Btcorn is another story). You might be drinking milk that came from cloned cows.