ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Clonorchiasis And Schistosomiasis : Morphology, Clinical Features, Diagnosis And Treatment

Updated on April 1, 2014

The Main Vector Of The Chinese Liver Fluke Is The Fish

Source

Clonorchiasis (Chinese Liver Fluke Disease)

Infection of the biliary passages by Clonorchis sinensis causes clonorchiasis. This disease is prevalent, the Far East among fish eating mammals such as dogs, cats, pigs and man. It has been reported among Chinese immigrants in places like India for instance.

Morphology, lifecycle and pathogenesis: This fluke is 11 to 20 X 3 to 4 mm in size. Eggs measure 30 to 16 um and are passed in stools. The snails vectors belong to the genus Bulinus and Parafossarulus. The cercaria are ingested by fresh water fishes (more than 40 species) which form the second intermediate hosts. Metacercariae develop in their muscles. When such fishes are ingested uncooked, the cysts wall is digested and the larvae are set free in the duodenum. They pass up through the ampulla of Vater to the smaller biliary passages and sometimes the pancreatic ducts. In course of time, the biliary cirrhosis, suppurative cholangitis and rarely malignancy may occur as complications. Clinical features include diarrhea hepatomegaly, recurrent jaundice and eosinophilia.

Diagnosis: The eggs can be demonstrated in the feces or duodenal aspirate.

Treatment: Chloroquine base in a dose of 600mg daily for six weeks is effective. Praziquantel in a dose of 25 mg/Kg for one or two days is claimed to be successful.

Tortuous Varicosities in Chronic Schistosomiasis

Source

Schistosomiasis (Billharziasis)

Infection by Schistosoma hematobium, S. mansoni or S. japonicum constitutes Schistomiasis. Schistoma hematobium affects the urinary tract, S. mansoni affects the large intestine, liver and lungs and S. japonicum affects mainly the small intestine and upper part of large intestine, but the liver, lungs and the central nervous system are also affected frequently. S. hematobium and S. mansoni parasitize only man whereas S. japonicum may also affect other animals such as the dog, cat, rat, field mouse and cattle.

Morphology and lifecycle: The lifecycle of all the species is similar. Definitive host is man. Eggs are discharged in urine or feces. The eggs hatch out immediately in water and liberate free swimming mircidia which penetrate specific snail hosts within 24 hours (genus Bulinus for S. hematobium, Biomphalaria for S. mansoni and Oncomelanla for S. japonicum). Two sporocyst generations develop within the snail. Cercariae are formed within 4 to 6 weeks. These escape from the snail into water and remain infective for 2 to 3 days. The cercariae penetrate intact human skin and the oral mucous membrane when there is a thin film of water. Infection is acquired by contact with fresh water containing the cercariae. After entry, the cercariae lose their tails and theyr each the peripheral venules and lymphatics. Within 24 hours, they pass through the lungs, diaphragm and liver. Then they enter the systemic circulation. The parasites finally reach the portal venous system and develop into adult worms. The adult worms measure 1 to 2 cm in length and have a lifespan of 4 to 30 years. The male is broader and holds the female within its fold. The female is longer and more slender and cylindrical than the male. Within 4 to 6 weeks of infection they reach their destination through the venules draining the pelvic viscera and start laying eggs. Schistosoma japonicum passes through the superior mesenteric vein and S. mansoni passes through the inferior mesenteric veins. Finally, they both reach the submucosal vessels of the intestine. Schistosoma japonicum affects the small intestine and the ascending colon, while S. mansoni lodges in the descending colon and rectum. Schistosoma hematobium reaches the bladder and other pelvic organs.

The females lay about 3000 eggs daily in the terminal blood vessels. The worms slowly retreat as the terminal vessels get progressively blocked. The eggs remain viable for 3 weeks. The eggs of S. hematoblium containing miracidia appear in urine. The eggs of S. mansoni and S. japonicum are passed in feces.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)