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DU- Depleted Uranium and Diabetes Prevalence in the World-Kuwait
Do you See Depleted Uranium - (DU) Could be Risk Factor in the accelerated Diabetes Epidemic in the World ?
Under Construction - Tarek Nofal.
What is the Depleted Uranium
- Depleted uranium ( DU ) is a by-product of the process used to enrich natural uranium for use in nuclear reactors and in nuclear weapons.
- Uranium is composed of three isotopes: 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U,The enrichment process concentrates both the 235 U and the 234 U isotopes in the product material. resulting in a waste product or by-product depleted in both 235 U and 234 U. The resultant DU retains a smaller percentage of 235 U , 234 U and a slightly greater percentage of 238 U.
- Depleted uranium emits alpha,beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles the primary radiation type produced by DU.
- The radioactivity associated with DU is approximately 40% less than that of natural uranium because the more radioactive isotopes have been removed as its shown in the table.
- Depleted uranium is chemically toxic like other heavy metals such as lead.
The Destructive Force of Depleted Uranium
Why it is used in the wars
Atomic scientists calculate that each alpha particle can break hundreds of thousands of molecular bonds. There is no shortage of this energy. Every gram of DU produces 12,000 alpha particles per second.
That is why it is used because its extreme density and its ability to penetrate targets make it an effective weapon. these same properties also enhance the protection of the tanks when DU is incorporated into tank armor.
also DU is used in civilian applications requiring high density materials, such as aviation, satellite ballast, radiation therapy and oil exploration.
History of depleted uranium weapons use
DU weapons were first developed by US Navy in 1968 and used in
- 1973 Yom Kippur war by Israel .
- Falklands Islands war by the British's in 1982.
- 1991 Gulf War then in the Balkans in the late 1990s.
- Kosovo in 2000, in the war against Afghanistan in 2001.
- Iraq in 2003, and also by the Israelis in the 2006 war with Lebanon.
Types of radiation & effects on humans
- Particles (alpha particles, beta particles, neutrons).
- High-energy electromagnetic waves (x-rays, gamma rays).
- Alpha particles are energetic helium nuclei emitted by some radionuclides with high atomic numbers (eg, plutonium, radium, uranium); they cannot penetrate skin beyond a shallow depth (< 0.1 mm).
- Beta particles are high-energy electrons that are emitted from the nuclei of unstable atoms (eg, cesium-137, iodine-131). These particles can penetrate more deeply into skin (1 to 2 cm) and cause both epithelial and sub-epithelial damage.
- Neutrons are electrically neutral particles emitted by a few radionuclides (eg, californium-252) their depth of tissue penetration varies from a few millimeters to several tens of centimeters, depending on their energy.
- Gamma radiation and x-rays are electromagnetic radiation (ie, photons) of very short wavelength that can penetrate deeply into tissue (many centimeters).
alpha and beta particles cause the most damage when the radioactive atoms that emit them are within the body (internal contamination) or, in the case of beta-emitters, directly on the body; only tissue in close proximity to the radionuclide is affected. Gamma rays and x-rays can cause damage distant from their source and are typically responsible for acute radiation syndromes.
The potential health effects of the radioactive contamination depend on
- Type and route of exposure
- Solubility of the DU
- Magnitude of exposure.
Type and route of exposure
- Internal - (inhalation, ingestion or wound contamination)
- External - on skin or clothing.
Solubility of the DU
- Chemical toxicity is usually the major hazard from soluble forms of DU not the radiation as common misconception.
Magnitude of exposure
- DU may pose a long-term health hazard to personnel if the amount is large. Including the amount inhaled or ingested. the particle size and the ability of the particles to dissolve in body fluids.
- Uranium isotopes emit alpha particles as their primary radiation. alpha particles cannot penetrate the skin. uranium is usually considered an internal radio-logical hazard rather than an external radiation hazard.
- DU can contain trace amounts of 236 U and other substances plutonium,americium, and technetium. so that, Awareness should be maintained regarding the external hazard. however, the EPA in its document of depleted uranium technical brief regarded the risk posed by these trace contaminants as insignificant.
Radiation exposure & Health hazards of the DU
Radiation exposure involves:
- Radioactive contamination
is the unintended contact with and retention of radioactive material, usually as a dust or liquid.
most cases in which contamination posed a significant risk to the patient involved a relatively small number of radionuclides, such as phosphorus-32, cobalt-60, strontium-90, cesium-137, iodine-131, iodine-125, radium-226, uranium-235, uranium-238, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, polonium-210, and americium-241.
Is exposure to radiation from the source of radiation.
When the source of the radiation is removed or turned off, exposure ends. Irradiation can involve the whole body, which, if the dose is high enough, can result in systemic symptoms and radiation syndromes.
Radiation Dose Units
1 Sv = 100 rem
1 rem = 1000 mrem
1 Sv = 1000 mSV
1 mSV = 100 mrem
Time to Onset (without treatment)
changes in blood chemistry
within 2 months
destruction of intestinal lining
damage to central nervous system
loss of consciousness;
Doses of radiation and the biological effects of radiation (Chernobyl accident case)
Large radiation doses
- Large radiation doses (more than 0.5 Sv), induce symptoms of radiation sickness (nausea, vomiting, lost appetite, bleeding, decrease in the amount of white blood cells).
- which result in increased risk of infection and sometimes death. The immediate effects are seen when the whole body is exposed to radiation doses exceeding 0.5 Sv* in a few hours or days.
Small radiation doses
- Small doses of radiation (less than 500 mSv) ,It is very difficult to determine the influence of small doses of radiation on the body because their manifestations are not clear.
- negatively impact the central nervous system. the first few months after the accident it was possible to determine malfunctions of the peripheral nervous system, neuro autoimmune changes, and disturbances in neuro endocrine control. the development of these changes depends heavily on the dose of radiation and on psychogenic stresses.
the increase in the cancer incidence rate is about 0.17 percent per rem of radiation dose1. this is based on effects seen at high doses.
Radiation-induced cancers do not appear until at least 10-30 years after exposure (for tumors) or 2-30 years after exposure (for leukemia).
Use of DU & Impacts on the surrounding countries
The military in UK maintain that the uranium remains near the point of impact, and the Royal Society report (2002) also states that the material does not travel more than some tens of meters.
But, in the occasional Paper for 2006 for the British scientists Chris Busby and Saoirse Morgan they mentioned to increases in uranium levels were reported in Hungary during the use of DU in Kosovo.
measurements of uranium in local populations in Kosovo some nine months after the use of uranium weapons all tested positive for Depleted uranium in urine and the United Nations (UNEP) found uranium particles in air filters in Bosnia some years after its use.
and they proved that the material does can travel thousands of kilometers to exceed the surrounded countries by the measurements of uranium which have been measured in Aldermaston, Berkshire,UK. during the use of DU in Iraq.
Direction from AWE
Approximate Distance km
Not War : Mean / SD
War : Mean / SD
116.6 / 78
259 / 158
201.3 / 152
1230 / 409
134.4 / 78
168.9 / 197
641 / 181
Mean of Offsite Filters
155 / 101
650 / 212
Mean of Onsite Filters
154 / 85
512 / 82
Gulf War 2 & contamination in UK - Chris Busby & Saoirse Morgan
Since the 1990s, measurements of uranium in high volume air sampling filters have been routinely made by the Atomic Weapons Establishment -AWE at Aldermaston in Berkshire, UK. because of the discovery of significant excess childhood leukaemia in the area around the plant.
Hannington, Thatcham, Silchester and Reading, four sites which the monitoring results were detected .The distance in kilometers from AWE for each of these sites is given in this Table.
The period before and after the Gulf War 2 , US bombing of Iraq which began on 19th March 2003 was measured and uranium in the air samplers was statistically significantly.
different from the mean value and in the case of Reading exceeded the
1000ng/m3 statutory limit above which the Environment Agency has to be informed.
The mean levels over the two years prior to the excession were around 100ng/m3, compared with the 600ng/m3 excession levels.
The increases in uranium in the filters occurs in all the filters, and levels are greater offsite than onsite. Thus the event can be assumed to be distinct from any releases from the Atomic Weapons Establishment itself; These increases were in material from the period from 13th March to the 24th April. This is also roughly the period of Gulf War 2.
Exposure of the public in UK to uranium aerosols from the Gulf War 2.
Since the background level could be considered to be 155nBq/m3 we can say that there was an excess of uranium in air of some 500nBq/m3, that means each person would have inhaled about 23 million particles. These particles would have rapidly transferred through the lungs and into the lymphatic system where they would have access to all tissues.
What about the Source of Uranium Aerosols and the Surrounding Countries
- More than 300 sites across Iraq are contaminated with high levels or radiation and dioxins with three decades of war and neglect having left environmental ruin in large parts of the country.
- Najaf, Basra and Falluja, account for around 25% of the contaminated sites which appear to coincide with communities that have seen increased rates of cancer and birth defects over the past 10 years.
- Baghdad and Basra contain high levels of ionising radiation, which is thought to be a legacy of depleted uranium used in munitions during the first Gulf war and since the 2003 invasion.
- in Basra, The soil has ended up in people's lungs and has been on food that people have eaten. Dioxins have been very high in those areas. All of this has caused systemic problems on a very large scale for both ecology and overall health.
- in 1991 About one million bullets, projectiles, and missiles were fired along the highway from Kuwait to Basrah then up to Nasriya and other Iraqi cities. About 35% of this ammunition and expenditure were fired in Kuwait.
According to the evidence which proved by Chris Busby and Saoirse Morganthat the contaminated air transferred from Iraq to UK, it confirms the mechanism of transferring DU radioactive particles by wind storms and air currents from the battle fields in Kuwait and Iraq to Saudi Arabia and therefore to all the gulf region and surrounding countries.
Consequences of the DU Use on Health & Environment in the Gulf region
US Army reports warned the use of DU weapons could have severe health and environmental consequences and create "adverse international reaction."
Between 315 and 350 tons of Depleted uranium contaminated equipment and the soil on the battlefields of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and southern Iraq.
The DU aerosols remain for an extended time and this is the most dangerous pathway on civilian population around the battlefield areas.
DU contaminate vast regions and slowly destroy the genetic future of populations living in those areas.
Uranium and phosphate have a strong chemical affinity for each other and the DNA and Mitochondria are loaded with phosphate. so, uranium is a DNA and Mitochondria deep penetration bomb.
The end result of air and water contamination is that DU is deposited in the soil. this means that the area remains contaminated, and will not decontaminate itself.
The permanent radioactive contamination and environmental devastation of areas bombed with depleted uranium are showing huge increases in cancer and birth defects following attacks. These will increase over time due to chronic exposure, increasing internal levels of radiation from depleted uranium dust, and permanent genetic effects passed on to future generations. In areas thousands of miles from the battlefields and tests sites everything will be in slow motion compared to places like Iraq and Afghanistan.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has repeatedly ranked the Ahwaz territory in first in terms of air pollution. The WHO also confirmed that the air of which Ahwazi people breaths has high level of particles with depleted uranium. This has triggered various cancerous diseases among the Ahwazi Arab residents in recent years.
GDP and HDI as reasons of high prevalence of Diabetes
HDI and GDP index for Arabian gulf countries are classified as high development index (HDI) countries and also classified as countries with highest prevalence (%) of diabetes. there is common belief that the high HDI is the cause of the obesity as one of the strong risk factor to diabetes in these countries. for sure the welfare may often lead to obesity in many people and therefore, to be under the risk of pre-diabetes and diabetes .
But, at the same time Norway ,Sweden ,Finland, Netherlands, Germany and Denmark which they have the highest HDI in the world they have very low diabetes prevalence.
There are differences in the life style, nutrition,social habits between Arabian Gulf countries and north Europe countries that may increase the risk of developing diabetes in Arab Gulf countries more than this European countries but not to this extent .
Therefore, the hypothesis of presence another risk factor is exist. and the common belief that high GDP or HDI are the causes of diabetes in these countries is not conclusive evidence on the Diabetes prevalence.
’’Dr. K. Yagasaki, has calculated that 800 tons of depleted uranium is the atomicity equivalent of 83,000 bombs the size of the one which struck Nagasaki. ’’
DU and world wide diabetes epedimic
Dr. Mark Sircus, said that Most medical doctors have never heard of the connection between depleted uranium and diabetes but neither have they paid attention to the fact that mercury and other toxic chemicals are also primary causes of diabetes.
Dr. Leuren Moret, said that the use of uranium weapons has caused a global diabetes epidemic since 1991.
according to the Testimony of Leuren Moret for the International Criminal Tribunal for Afghanistan, Moret said: Arab women have reported to me that their families in Kuwait are now complaining of escalating diabetes and leukemia in children born in Kuwait after the Gulf War, and that those diseases were almost unknown before the war.
Moret notices a correlation between the very beginning of the diabetes pandemic facing the world now, and the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, has had a major contribution from the effects of uranium pollution from atmospheric testing, nuclear power plants, and depleted uranium weapons introduced to the battlefield in 1991,2003.
Also, she predicts that we can expect the use of depleted uranium weaponry by Israel in the recent aggression against Lebanon will continue to add to increasing diabetes in the region as well as globally.
Some theories suggest that environmental factors trigger the autoimmune destruction of beta cells in people with a genetic susceptibility to diabetes. Other theories suggest that environmental factors play an ongoing role in diabetes, even after diagnosis.
DU & Vitamin D and Diabetes
The isotope of most concern for Department of Energy (DOE) environmental management sites and other areas is Cesium-137 which has a half-life of 30 years.
Depleted uranium emits alpha,beta particles and gamma rays. beta particles are emitted from the radionuclides that the Cesium-137 one of them .
Chemical and radiological toxicity of uranium and Cesium-137 has been reported in kidney, liver and brain that play key-roles in vitamin D metabolism by an experimental animal model demonstrated that chronic exposure with environmental doses of Cesium-137 and uranium could decrease the vitamin D active form level.
Cesium-137 that is a common radioactive contaminant also weighs heavily on vitamin D According to the Center for Strategic and International Studies the most likely radioactive element in a dirty bomb is Cesium-137.
If cesium-137 contaminated soil becomes air-borne as dust, breathing the dust would result in internal exposure.
Researchers have even investigated in vivo the effects of a chronic exposure to DU on vitamin D (3) metabolism, a hormone essential in mineral and bone homeostasis. Anything that affects mineral homeostasis is going to be important in setting up conditions for diabetes.
Vitamin D deficiency predisposes individuals to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to impair insulin synthesis and secretion in humans.
Clearly vitamin D deficiency is involved in the pathogenesis of both forms of diabetes.
Scientific research studies found that vitamin D able to reduce progression from pre-diabetes to diabetes.
Diabetes in USA & DU
- The upper map is the Cesium - 137 deposition (bq/m2) across the USA, with red the highest quantity of cesium -137, (8000 - 13000 bq/m2), and blue the lowest quantity, (0 -6000 bq/m2).
- US maps indicates that the highest diabetes rates in the US are along theGulf Coast states where the Depleted Uranium is carried across the Atlantic on Westerlies and rained out where the highest rainfall occurs along the Gulf Coast in 1963. "New York Times Jan. 9, 2006".
- The maps show The trends of diagnosed diabetes over the years and the high rates of diagnosed diabetes in the states along the gulf coast as its shown on the maps in the middle.
- after 30 - 40 years the effects of the depleted uranium appeared clearly as evidence on the correlation between DU and Diabetes.
- if we have a look on the map of obesity we will find high rates of obesity in some of states but not match the same states in the Diabetes map.in contrast, the map of cesium 137 match the Diabetes map more.
- And also approximately, the cancer mortality rates by country lung , trachea , bronchus and pleura for white males were the highest at the same areas of the maps of diabetes where depleted uranium is carried and rained out along the gulf coast as its shown on the map below.
Diabetes in Japan & DU
According to the IDF statistics for the diabetes comparative prevalence, Japan is one of the lowest countries 5.2% for adults.
also there was study investigated the annual incidence and clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes among school-aged children as detected by urine glucose screening from 1974 to 2002 in the Tokyo metropolitan area for approximately 8 million school children, The overall annual incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.63/100,000.
Tokyo newspaper announced : 6 in 10 Fukushima children tested have diabetes - Head of Tokyo - area medical clinic said we are expecting diabetes from Fukushima radiation.
Cesium - 137 deposition (bq/m2) in Sukagawa city is approximately between (10.000 bq/m2 ) ,and (600.000 bq/m2), as its shown on the map.
Dr. Miura, the director of Iwase general hospital conducted health checkup for people in temporary dwellings in Sukagawa city Fukushima. The result showed 6 in 10 children under 12 years old have diabetes. Dr. Miura states this is abnormal situation, but is guessing it’s because of the lack of exercise or stress.
But, in Gomel - Belarus the incident rate of Diabetes type 1 in a highly contaminated area increased sharply to twice that before the accident of Chernobyl.
Researchers at the Pediatric Hospital A. Meyer, Florence, Italy confirm the hypothesis of the influence of environmental pollution subsequent to the Chernobyl accident can cause diabetes. also Heinrich Heine University- Dusseldorf, Germany confirmed the the same hypothesis by significant and documented increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents after Chernobyl in the radioactively contaminated area of Gomel.
Conclusion : Cesium-137 has strong correlation with Diabetes that may cause the high Incidence of diabetes in Sukagawa city Fukushima for the tested children. the accident of Fukushima with roughly 85 times the amount of Cesium-137 released at Chernobyl that confirms the hypothesis of incidence of diabetes in Sukagawa.
The Highest Top ten Countries in Diabetes Prevalence in the World
Diabetes in Tokelau,Cook Islands,Kiribati and Frensh Polynesia
Tokelau (1) 37.5% , Kiribati (4) 28.8% ,Cook islands (5) 25.7% and French Polynsia (11) 22.4% , are countries located in the central Pacific Ocean.
From 1960 to 1996, France carried out 193 nuclear tests in French Polynesia - Moruroa Atoll and Fangataufa Atoll. This includes 41 atmospheric and 137 underground tests, with a further 15 safety trials.
A total of 33 nuclear detonations were conducted on two atolls of the Republic of Kiribati by the UK and the U.S. in the 1950s and 1960s. Thousands of islanders and servicemen were subjected to radioactive fallout and now suffer from radiation effects.
United Kingdom used the atolls for its first series of fission bomb explosions. On May 15, 1957 the first British hydrogen bomb was exploded off the coast of Malden island. The tests reached a maximum yield of 720 kilotons, equivalent to more than 50 times the power of the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima. On November 8, 1957, the UK detonated its first successful hydrogen test bomb on Christmas Island (Kiritimati, Kiribiati).
Between April and September 1958, the British military tested five more nuclear weapons above or near Christmas Island (Kiritimati, Kiribiati), the largest explosion yielding three megatons, or about 240 times the destructive power of the Hiroshima bomb.
A case-control study undertaken on New Zealand soldiers involved in the tests showed strong links between radiation exposure and long-term genetic damage, leading to various cancers, especially blood and bone cancers.
Diabetes in Southern Iraq and Kuwait & DU
in the southern of iraq particullary in Basrah ,there was study investigated the incidence of Diabetes by Al-Faiha Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolism Center (FDEMC) Basrah, Iraq, the conclusion was the prevalence of diabetes in Basrah, Iraq, was very high, affecting one in five adults.
In addition to the Birth defects have been increasingly severe in babies born to civilians living in contaminated areas in Southern Iraq.
Some of the areas in the southern desert region along the Kuwaiti border are especially radioactive on scans and tests. One of the test ranges in Saudi Arabia shows over 1000 times the normal background level for radiation.
Diabetes comparative prevalence in Kuwait for 2013 was 23.09% with global rank 9 and Impaired glucose tolerance ( IGT ) was the highest in the world for 2013.
The common belief in the world and Kuwait that risk factors for diabetes are obesity , physical inactivity and the factors that are related to nutrition are behind the high prevalence of diabetes in Kuwait.
But, the abnormal (IGT) in Kuwait raises inquiries about the existence of another factor that deserves the attention of epidemiology researchers.
The conclusion : there is an inverse relationship between vitamin D and Impaired glucose tolerant (IGT). People with low vitamin D status tend to have higher fasting blood sugar levels, impaired glucose tolerance and a higher incidence of pre-diabetes. supplementation with vitamin D among pre-diabetics improves insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance.
And Cesium-137 is weight heavily on the vitamin D. so maybe the high IGT in Kuwait is due to Cesium-137 that came from the contaminated sites in Iraq and from the contamination that was in Kuwait before decontamination of the Kuwaiti sites of war 1991.
Risk factor of exposure to Depleted Uranium maybe it's the factor behind the severe increase of the Diabetes in the world and i think more of the scientific researches are strongly required , as well as the rest of the risk factors for Diabetes.
Comments first to see the contents (discussion).......................................
1 - Depleted uranium: sources, exposure and health effects Executive summary.
2 - Depleted Uranium,Cancer,Diabetes and you. By Alan Cantwell, MD
3 - WHO - Depleted uranium Sources, Exposure and Health Effects
4 - Consequences of the Depleted Uranium use By picard578 on April 20,2013
5 - Leuren Moret "Depleted uranium: The Trojan Horse of nuclear war," June 2004 World Affairs Journal, Moret claims
6 - IDF - Report 2013
7 - Diabetes in the Arabs world By Eiichiro Ochia
8 - DNA and Mitochondrial Time Bombs: Uranium, Mercury and Diabetes BY Mark Sircus
9 - Did the use of Uranium weapons in Gulf War 2 result in contamination of Europe? Evidence from the measurements of the Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Berkshire,UK.BY Chris Busby,Saoirse Morgan
10 - The Gulf War Battlefield: Still “Hot” with Depleted Uranium BY Scott Peterson
11 - Depleted Uranium Weapons: Lesson from the 1991 Gulf War BY Dan Fahey
12 - Is Depleted Uranium Causing Diabetes? One doctor researches the link between depleted uranium and diabetes by N J Howel
13 - Military Medicine - Airway College - Air University
14 - Directorate of Miliatry Medicine within JHC
15 - Martin Chulov in Baghdad - The Guardian , Friday 22 January 2010 17.45 GMT
16 - Depleted uranium Recycling death - URANIUM MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTER
17 - Epidemiology of childhood diabetes mellitus in Japan
18 - The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus
19 - Radiation Exposure and Contamination
20 - US. Environmental Protection Agency
21 - DISTRIBUTION OF 137CS IN THE SURFACE SOIL FROM SELECTED AREAS IN IRAQ
Kamal K. Ali* and Baha A. Marouf
22 - Dr. Souad N. Al-Azzawi Assoc. Prof. / Mamoun Univ. for Science & Technology
23 - Investigation of depleted uranium contamination in south west of Iraq A.T. Al-Kinani1,2*,A.S. Al-Saidi3, S. Al-Anni3 1Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
24 - Hiroshima to Fukushima: Biohazards of Radiation By Eiichiro Ochia
25 - Sustainable Resource Development By Gary M.Zatzman
26 -Prevalence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 19 years and older in Basrah, Iraq
Abbas Ali Mansour, Ahmed A Al-Maliky, Bashar Kasem, Abdulsatar Jabar, Khalid Abdulabass Mosbeh. Al-Faiha Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolism Center (FDEMC) Basrah, Iraq
27 - High cancer rates among Ahwazi children alarm the medical community
28 - The Toxicity of Depleted Uranium
29- Study of the effects of radionuclides (uranium and cesium 137) on the metabolism of vitamin D in rats
30 - Vitamin D and Pre-diabetic
31 - Association between Vitamin D, Fasting Blood Glucose, HbA1c and Fasting Lipid
Profile in Euglycemic Individuals Vijetha Shenoy, Priyanka Datta, Krishnananda Prabhu and Kriti Singh
32- France urged to clean up deadly waste from its nuclear tests in Polynesia
33- Information on Uranium mining,Health and indigenous people
34- Depleted Uranium is “blowing in the wind” By Arun Shrivistava Global Research, March 02, 2006
35- Soviet Test 184 BY JERRY EMANUELSON B.S.E.E
36- NUCLEAR ARMS CONTROL AND NON-PROLIFERATION
37- INTERNATIONAL DAYS AGAINST NUCLEAR TESTS
38- List of nuclear test sites
39- 1956 Soviet nuclear tests
40 - Radiation Protection
41- Hiroshima: Radiation Effects
42- UN Hid Alarming Report, Almost 10 Tons Of Depleted Uranium Dropped On Kosovo
43 - World Nuclear Association
44- DEPLETED URANIUM , ANTHERAX VACCINE AND THE GULF WAR SYNDROME
45- Air pollution and incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in black women living in Los Angeles
© 2014 Tarek Nofal.