ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Diarrhoea: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Control

Updated on August 2, 2017

Diarrhoeal disease forms a group of intestinal infections including food poisoning. The main symptom of all such infections is diarrhoea. Diarrhoea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faeces. Symptoms of the diarrhoea include decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, borborygmus(gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas in the alimentary canal) and abdominal cramps. There may be blood and mucus in the stools. Persisted vomiting and loose stools cause dehydration and shock. Blood pressure may fall, pulse rate increases and temperature rise.Infection of diarrhoea spread through contaminated food, water, drinks, hands, clothes, bed sheets and utensils. It is one of the major causes of infant mortality.

Source

What Causes Diarrhoea?

The causative agents of diarrhoea are:

  • Bacteria such as Esherichia Coli, Clostridium Botulinum, Shigella dysentiriae, Campylobacter jejuri and Salmonella.
  • The protozoans- Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Balantidium coli.
  • Some viruses-Rotavirus, Enterovirus, Adenovirus and Norwalk.
  • Nematodes(Ascaris) also act as causative agents of diarrhoea.
  • Eating contaminated food and water.
  • Drinking too much alcohol and caffeine.
  • It can also result from Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
  • Lactose intolerance can also upset the balance in stomach leading to diarrhoea.
  • Eating spicy and fatty foods.
  • It can also be a side effect of taking medicines like antacid medicines, antibiotics, laxatives and statins.

Symptoms of Diarrhoea

  • Frequent loose motions and vomiting leading to dehydration.
  • Dehydration(loss of water from body tissues) which makes the patient dangerously ill in a very short time.
  • In the case of dehydration, the patient becomes irritable, eyes appear sunken, the nose is pinched and the tongue and the inner side of cheeks appear dry.
  • There is sudden weight loss, weak pulse, deep breathing and fever or fits.
  • Watery stool and stomach cramps.
  • Urgent need to go to the toilet.
  • Other serious symptoms may include blood and pus in the stool, repeated vomiting and inability to increase fluid intake.

How to Prevent?

  • Eatables should be covered to prevent their contamination.
  • Fruits and vegetables should be properly washed before use.
  • Proper personal hygiene is important. Hands should be washed with soap and water before eating any food.
  • Stale food should not be consumed.
  • Community hygiene is also important.

How to Control Diarrhoea?

  • Complete bed rest should be ensured till the illness is fully controlled.
  • Pulp of boiled unripe banana along with required amount of salt, turmeric powder and lime is helpful in controlling the diarrhoea.
  • Husk of isabgol seed(Plantago ovata) with water and curd provides relief.
  • If there is frequent vomiting, liberal amount of fluids with electrolytes should be provided orally.
  • Dilute soups and pulses, rice water and butter milk can also be given to compensate the loss of water.
  • For treating diarrhoea, anti-microbial drugs and anti diarrhoeal agents should be used.
  • Spicy food, alcohol, caffeine etc should be avoided.
  • Eating low fiber BRAT food- bananas, rice (white), applesauce, toast, will help in firming up the stool.
  • Probiotics like yoghurt, cottage cheese, kefir, etc should be consumed
  • If symptoms persist, immediately consult a Doctor.
  • Chamomile tea and ginger tea might help in relieving the symptoms.

How to Prevent Dehydration in Diarrhoea?

Dehydration of patient can be countered with oral rehydration therapy, i.e., intake of adequate fluids and electrolytes. Relief can be provided by oral rehydration in diarrhoea by giving the patient a mixture of salt, sugar and water, three to four times a day. An ideal solution called ORS(Oral Rehydration Solution) to prevent dehydration can be prepared as follows:

  • Take a glass of water and add to it- 3 teaspoonfuls of sugar, a quarter teaspoonful of common salt, a pinch of sodium bicarbonate and a few drops of lemon juice. Mix it well and give this solution to the patient having diarrhoea at least three to four times a day to prevent dehydration. It should be kept in mind that this solution is made for preventing dehydration and it contains sugar which is a good nutrient for the growth of microorganisms. So, if the solution is kept for a long time then microorganisms will grow in it and it will get spoiled. In this way, this ORS will become unfit for the patient. So, a small quantity must be prepared fresh each time just before giving it to the patient to prevent further infection.

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • varsha bang profile imageAUTHOR

      Varsha 

      11 months ago from India

      Yes, pal. Chronic diarrhoea is a serious issue and should not be ignored.

    • Angel Guzman profile image

      Angel Guzman 

      11 months ago from Joliet, Illinois

      Oh crap! Lol, I never realized how serious it could be.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)