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What Are the Different Methods (Types) of Pregnancy Prevention.

Updated on August 8, 2013

Preventing Pregnancy/Contraception

It has become really necessary to promote more awareness on preventing pregnancy. This awareness should start with girls and immediately they start to menstruate (or womenstruate?) to reduce teenage pregnancy and its risks. Then, to young adults (or mothers as the case may be) and older women until they start menopause (men...again, why not womenopause?).

Contraception should be freely obtained from the following except they state otherwise:

A general practice, contraceptive or sexual health clinic, young people's services and GUM (genitourinary medicine). You can also get free emergency contraception from most NHS walk-in centres (England only) and minor injuries units, some hospital Accident and Emergency (phone to confirm first) and some pharmacies (there may be age limit).

If you are 16 or over, you can buy emergency pill from most pharmacies.

Contraceptive Methods With no User Failure

These are contraceptive methods which do not depend on you remembering to take or use them. They are either temporarily or permanently permanent.

1. CONTRACEPTIVE INJECTION - it works by releasing slowly the hormone progestogen into the body to stop ovulation, thicken cervical mucus thereby preventing sperm from reaching the egg and also thins the linning of the womb to prevent an egg implant.

It lasts for 8-12 weeks and any side effects may continue for these intervals because injection can not be removed from the body. Menstruation could become irregular,prolonged or may even stop. This and fertility may take some time to return after stopping the injections. Some weight gains, headaches, spotty skin, mood changes and breast tenderness may occur.

It may give some protection against cancer of the womb and pelvic inflammatory disease plus you do not have to think about getting pregnant for as long as the injection lasts. It is not affected by other medicines.

2.IMPLANT - this is a small flexible tube about 40mm long put under the skin of the arm. This also stops ovulation as described above. It works for three years unless taken out and it can be taken out anytime. Normal fertility level returns when it is removed.

With implant, periods are often irregular, much longer or stop for the first year. I experienced longer period with this one.My period came more often and quite irregularly too for almost two years. I left it on because of the three years safety it offered and it never failed me. One can feel the implant with finger but it can not be seen. Some medicines may stop it from working so, it is good to find out if you are on any medication.

3.INTRAUTERINE DEVICE (IUD)- a small plastic copper device is inserted into the womb to prevent sperm from reaching an egg and may stop an egg from implanting in the womb. It does not work by causing an abortion. It lasts from 3-10 years depending on the type and can also be taken out at any time. Normal fertility level returns when removed.

However, period may become heavier,longer and more painful. It is not suitable for women who are at risk of getting sexually transmitted infections. If fitted after the age of forty, it can remain until menopause. You would be taught how to check that it is in place by feeling the threads high in the vagina. It is not affected by other medicines.

4.INTRAUTERINE SYSTEM (IUS)- it also involves a small plastic device which stops ovulation as described above. It works for five years but may be taken out at any time to return fertility level to normal. Periods are much lighter and less painful which makes it useful for women with heavy and/or painful periods. Irregular bleeding or spotting is common with this method and a check for existing infection is usually advised before IUS is put in.

5.STERILISATION - it could be done by both male and female. Also known as vasectomy in male. Fallopian tubes in women and tubes carrying sperm in men(vas deferens) are cut or blocked. This is permanent and has no serious long or short term side effects. It should not be chosen if in doubt and professional counselling is important.

Contraceptive Methods with User Failure.

These are methods you have to use and think about regularly or each time you have sex. They must be used to instructions.

1.CONTRACEPTIVE PATCH - it is a small patch stuck under the skin to release oestrogen and progestogen hormones. It stops ovulation as earlier discussed. It is easy to use and can be used by healthy non-smokers till menopause. Bleeding is regular, lighter and less painful. Fertility level returns to normal when not used

It is not suitable for smokers who are over thirt five years of age. Seriuos side effects are blood clot, cervical and breast cancers. Headaches, breast tenderness and skin reactions are also possible. Some medicines make it less effective and a new patch has to used each week for at least three weks out of four. It is less effective in women who weigh 90Kg and over.

2.CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS - thes are of two types. Combined pill (COC) which contains the two hormones oestrogen and progestogen is not suitable for smokers over thirty five years of age and Progestogen-only pill (POP) which can be used by women who smoke and are over thirty five and women who can not use oestrogen. POP must be taken same time each day and it is no longer effective if taken over three hours late (twelve hours for Cerazette). These pills are affected by vomitting and diarrhoea.

3.CONDOMS - male codom covers the pennis and stops sperm from entering the vagina. It is widely available in different shapes,sizes and flavour. It often interrupts sex and may slip off or split if not correctly used.

The female condom is a soft polyurethane sheath which lines the vagina to stop sperm from entering it. It can be put on at anytime before sex and protects against some sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. It is expensive, may get pushed too far and there is nee to ensure that the pennis enters this condom. New condoms are required eac time.

4.DIAPHRAGM/CAP - it involves a flexible latex or silicone device used with spermicide inserted into the vagina to cover the cervix to stop the sprm from getting to an egg. It needs to be replaced yearly or if there is weight gain or wiegt loss. There is different forms of it to choose from. It may also protect from some sexually transmitted infections.

5.NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING - the fertile and infertile periods of the menstrual cycle are noted to predict when to have sex or not. This makes a woman more aware of her body.

Some Facts About Preventing Pregnancies.

No method of contraception is perfect.

Breastfeeding can be reasonably effectively used if your baby is less than six months old, you are fully breastfeeding and if you have no periods.

A woman can still get pregnant if ;its her first time of having sex, she does not have orgasm, the man pulls out of her vagina before he comes, she has sex during period and with whatever position the sex was had in.

Emergency contraceptions are available which can still be used up to 72 hours after sex if you have had unprotected sex or you think your contraception has failed. However, the earlier it is used, the better it assures you of peventing pregnancy from occuring.

© 2012 omo daddy


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    • JakeFrost profile image

      Jake Frost 5 years ago from London, United Kingdom

      Its no problem, this is a really useful hub. I glad you've written it.

    • omo daddy profile image

      omo daddy 5 years ago

      I do hope so too, the days of hiding that sex exists from teenagers is gone. If they understand what they are getting into ,then they can stay out of trouble. Thanks for pointing that out JakeFrost, I appreciate that.

    • omo daddy profile image

      omo daddy 5 years ago

      Hello JakeFrost, thanks for stoping by.

    • JakeFrost profile image

      Jake Frost 5 years ago from London, United Kingdom

      Some really good information here, well researched and thought out. I hope dads will be subtly showing their teen daughters this