Disability and Psychological Intervention
Incidence of a disability
It is important to take into account that the incidence of a disability is a phenomenon that influences not only the physical aspects and the personal development of the subject who experiences it, whether a child or adult, whether it is acquired or a condition that accompanies the Subject from birth. This phenomenon significantly influences the family environment, parents, siblings and extended family; Sometimes the psychological effects are so subtle that their consequences will be equally extremely complex. Next, we review some scenarios of affectation and intervention that may arise when facing a disability in the family atmosphere.
Couple and disability
As naturally waiting for a new being is very important for the couple that wishes to form a family, expectations are often formed of what the new being will be like, imagine the physical characteristics of their child, the sex that will be, the activities that You will be taught, sports you like, etc. It is natural for these fantasies to form in what they want their child to be, and it is difficult for them to realize that their child is not what they expected, all their expectations, their dreams come down, Great emotional and psychological impact for each of the couple.
Initially the pain is so great that guilt can arise, and this causes the couple to take responsibility for what happened, generating a lot of pain inside the couple, it is frequent to ask questions like Why me? We ?, at this stage is very important the support of the family and the reaction that it has, in many cases serves as an emotional support for the family to remain united to face the new situation, but unfortunately in many cases the maternal family blames To the paternal family for what happened or vice versa, in other cases they marginalize the couple because it must be remembered that disability is still thought of as a disease.
In other cases it is also common for some of the couple to disengage from their child, the impact was such that it generated rejection towards their child, usually the father who disowns, in others the father prefers to give the economic sustenance to his Son but the couple separates.
In other cases the couple leaves the care of other relatives their child and they are dedicated to carry the economic sustenance, somehow this is also a form of rejection but not deliberate, then takes an attitude of escape.
Other couples stay together but the roles they keep changing it is common for the mother to leave her studies, her work and personal interests to dedicate herself to the home and the care of her child.
The idea of this section does not seek to focus on the particular cases because the variety of the behavioral spectrum is very diverse, nevertheless comments on some of the situations that occur frequently, and is meant to reflect the fact that the couple faces a crisis from the knowledge of The possibility of a disability, and that it is common to face feelings of anger, guilt, rejection, anger, frustration, depression, etc. That it is necessary to experiment in all its facets in order to give way to acceptance (duel); However, as the child grows older and the disability becomes more noticeable, and parents realize that their children may not be able to marry or have children or other expectations that the parents had forged, new disappointments can arise that give way To other periods of mourning.
Relationship between siblings
For parents a difficult situation to bear is the relationship of their child with disabilities with their other siblings; Conflicts, lack of communication, jealousy, selfishness, rejection, etc. are often reported.
We must remember that being the sibling of a child with a disability should not be a simple task, but rather a stressful situation, since parents, family and caregivers unintentionally direct their attention to the child with Provide more pampering, less responsibilities, forgive their faults, overprotect, etc. Situation is interpreted by the brother as that his brother with disability is more dear and is more important for parents, instead he or she may feel rejected or relegated.
It is common in many cases for siblings of persons with disabilities to experience similar experiences and situations, and experience similar feelings as anger, rejection towards the brother, fear of suffering from a disability, impotence, guilt about not having a disability or feeling responsible for Your brother's disability, jealousy of care, loneliness, and depression can arise.
These feelings lead the child to react in a certain way, frequently feel identified with the disability of his brother developing fear of acquiring or possess a disability, also develop embarrassment and discomfort due to the excess of attention that his brother generates before the unknown, in In some cases siblings feel guilty because they do not have a disability or because they have more abilities than their sibling, it is also common for parents to overload the child without disabil- ity of responsibilities, they are asked to collaborate in the care of their sibling, sometimes Exerts the pressure of the parents towards the brother so that excels in the school, sports, etc. Compensating for his brother's disability.
These situations are difficult for parents to handle because they feel that their disabled child in fact needs more attention and support, but they forget that the child with a disability should be given a life as normal as possible.
Despite all the difficulties of being a sibling of a person with a disability there are many benefits, it has been recognized that special siblings tend to generate more emotional and emotional maturity, are more responsible, tend to be more analytical and receptive to other people , Often the brother is the pillar that motivates the child with disabilities to have greater achievements, in addition the special brothers learn to recognize the qualities and not the deficiencies, they accept their abilities better and feel more driven to develop them, they feel proud Of their sibling, and take the responsibility of collaborating in the care of the disabled sibling.
Rehabilitation is a continuous and progressive process that allows the improvement of the quality of life of the disabled person, so that it can be integrated more easily into society, it is often thought only of the physical rehabilitation of the person, but Has proven that for this to be successful requires a comprehensive rehabilitation, ie to perform the necessary procedures to fit the person in all areas of life, for it is necessary for the person to receive: physical therapy, occupational therapy , Psychological therapy, multisensory stimulation therapy, language therapy, educational therapy, art therapy, etc. In addition to rigorous monitoring and evaluation such as consultation with physicians, psychometric tests, audiometry, etc.
This process is arduous and tiring for both parents and children, in some cases it is usually painful, however it is necessary to be able to obtain achievements, in fact to minimize pain it is necessary to continue with the consultations with the indicated regularity, and Perform the exercises indicated to be performed at home.