What Are the Four Primary Jungian Archetypes?
The Human Macro-Micro and Micro-Macro
Types of Jungian Archetypes
Archetypes are not exclusive to Jungian psychoanalytical theory. Archetypes are found throughout mythology, in various religions, in film, in literature, and so on. There are countless archetypes and archetypal images.
However, in Jungian theory, which is based on the work of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, some archetypes figure more prominently than others. Also, Jungian theory defines and uses some archetypes in a way that actually is specific to Jungian psychology.
Of primary importance to Jungian thought are the four archetypes that are the foundation of the psyche: the Self, the Anima, the Animus, and the Shadow.
Introduction to Archetypes
Archetypes are one of the foundations of Jungian psychology and as may seem to be a daunting subject to comprehend.
However, archetypes are actually only expressions of original energy, or the ideal image of what becomes an idea.
An archetype is the original concept, the blueprint, so to speak, that precedes and forms the structure of physical manifestations.
For example, think of the entity known as "mom."
Immediately, one's own mom springs to mind. One thinks of the person who nurtured one in the womb and throughout life, the person who encouraged, supported, and gave one love absolutely and unconditionally.
But one's mom is not the only mom, every person on the planet has a mom. Some moms may match all of the above, some may not even remotely resemble those ideas. The point is though, that there is an expectation of a mom is, there is an idea behind all those moms.
That idea's ideal is found in the archetype of the "Great Mother."
The Great Mother is sum total of all concepts embodied in "mom"--fertility, creativity, nurture, support--all of those concepts and more are found in the Great Mother archetype. To put it simply, the Great Mother is the blueprint for the person one calls "mom."
Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious
Jungian psychology often makes use of the concept of the unconscious. The unconscious is both personal and universal.
When referring to the universal unconscious, the term used is the collective unconscious. Sometimes referred to as "racial memory," the collective unconscious consists of the totality of human experience and wisdom.
Archetypes are those concepts that are a part of the collective human experience. They are cross cultural, universally recognized and understood.
To continue with the mother example, it is obvious that every culture has mothers as members. Every culture understands the concept of mother. The concept needs no translation, it is immediately understood.
Part of the reason for this universal understanding, from a Jungian standpoint, is since every person is tied to the collective experience, since every individual makes up the collective, every person, in their unconscious awareness is aware of what "mother" means because the archetypal Great Mother is a part of the collective unconscious.
When Good Archetypes Go Bad
Archetypal energy is one of the most powerful energies in the human psyche.
Since the archetypes and all they represent are innate parts of the human experience, there is an inborn idea of what one believes one can expect when encountering a human expression of an archetype.
When one encounters a person who is acting in an archetypal office but who is behaving contrary to what is expected of someone in the role, the results can be devastating.
Think again of mom, but this time think of the abusive or neglectful mom. Think of the mom who abandons her child in a toilet stall, the mom who beats her child, the mom who hurls emotional abuse, the mom who berates, belittles, or simply ignores her child.
The damage the child suffers as a result of mom's actions suffers not only from the actual abuse, but from the innate knowledge that mom is not meant to act in such a manner.
This knowledge could be one of the reasons children blame themselves for abuse--something in them knows what mom is meant to be and they place the blame for mom's failure squarely on their own shoulders.
The Self Archetype
When one thinks of the self, one typically think of who one is, the personal identity known as "I." However, the Jungian Self is dramatically different from one's conscious, personal identity.
The personal self, that individual identity normally associated with the self, is actually the ego--the personal conscious individual.
But psyches are composed of more than the conscious aspects of the personality--psyches also contain unconscious elements. Just as there is a collective unconscious, there is also an individual unconscious.
To achieve Self realization means to unite the elements in the personal unconscious with the elements in the ego consciousness.
When the Self is realized it does not mean that the conscious personality is obliterated; it means that the conscious personality is augmented with those parts of the psyche which are fractured and contained in the personal unconscious.
A symbolic expression of the Self is a circle with a dot inside it. The Self is neither just the circle nor just the dot. The Self is both the circle and the dot.
In dreams, the Self is often expressed in circular figures. Mandalas, stones, or even the sun can be Self symbols.
The Anima Archetype
The psyche, unlike individuals, has no gender. The psyche is comprised of both the male and the female.
However, the part of the psyche that is the opposite of one's external gender is hidden in the unconscious. Females have a hidden inner male; males have a hidden inner female. For men, the hidden female expression of the psyche is called the Anima.
There is no individual Anima--that is, there is no "my Anima" or "your Anima"-- the Anima is not personal. What is personal is how one relates to the Anima archetype, the manner in which one views the Feminine in its entirety.
The way in which one relates to the Feminine is, often unfortunately, the product of one's experiences, usually early experiences, with individual woman.
If these experiences were traumatizing or unpleasant, the the Anima will similarly reflect those experiences and take on a negative form such as a henpecking woman or a femme fatale bent on destroying the male individual.
If however, one's experiences with individual women were positive, the Anima becomes a powerful guiding force, oftentimes symbolizing an individual man's very soul or at least a soul guide.
It is important to understand that the Anima, the actual archetypal female is not synonymous with the individual woman one has encountered. This is important because in order to achieve wholeness, in order to realize the Self, one must integrate, comes to terms with, and accept the female with the male.
The Virgin Mary, Dante's Beatrice, and even Marilyn Monroe are Anima figures. In dreams, the positive Anima may manifest as a comforting guide whereas an ominous, threatening woman can be the Anima in negative form.
The Animus Archetype
All the above written about the Anima applies to individuals with an external female gender, only in reverse.
For women, the hidden male is known as the Animus archetype.
Whereas the Anima is often associated with the soul, the Animus is typically associated with concepts such as spirit, logic, and action.
Just as there is no individual Anima, there is no personal Animus. There is simply the archetypal quality of maleness, which again must not be confused with individual males the gendered female has encounted.
Whereas the female is concerned with receptivity, the male is associated with activity. For the female to be truly successful, she must integrate the Animus because it is the Animus that gives the female the ability to manifest all the knowledge she receives via her intuitive self.
Neither the female nor the male is privileged over the other in Jungian psychological theory. The receptive female needs the male activity to put thought into action. The active male needs the capacity to receive in order to act.
In dreams, the Animus in positive form appears as an encouraging figure, while in its negative form it can take on the role of the gangs of unknown men.
In waking life, a woman relating to the negative Animus may often experience feelings of "what's the use," "there's no point," or other negative, self-defeating thoughts and self-talk.
Contemporary Animus figures include Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Gandhi, and Barack Obama.
The Shadow Archetype
As the repository of psychic rejects, the Shadow is often misunderstood as nothing more than the personality's "dark half." While some shady segments certainly do exist, some areas are filled with "shadow gold."
Shadow gold refers to Carl Jung's statement, "In the Shadow is the gold." His comment refers to those powerful, positive, potentially life-altering psychic parts exiled from conscious awareness due pain, cultural disapproval, or their association with negative life experiences.
Shadow dreams often involve themes of the hidden, such as menacing water creatures like alligators, snakes in the grass, or being chased by an foreboding figure.
Archetypes are not only the foundation of analytical psychology--they are the primal prototypical concepts and ideals forming the foundation of human existence and expression.
However, in Jungian psychological thought archetypes are the very foundation of the psyche and learning to relate to them in a positive manner in crucial to psychic wholeness.
More on Jungian Studies
- CG Jung Page
The Jung Page has been providing articles, reviews, and a wide range of resources in Jungian psychology since 1995.
- Resources and Updates on Jungian Study
Courses that provide CE Credits (CEUs) for Psychologists, MFTs, Social Workers, Counselors, and Nurses, and are also available as a Certificate Program: Jungian Psychotherapy
- Carl Jung Resources for Home Study and Practice
Provides teachings about Carl Jung theories and methods of exploration of the unconscious mind. Includes online courses.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.
© 2012 Aisling Ireland