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E-Cigarettes Are Like Vaporizing Windshield Washer Fluid

Updated on October 22, 2014

E-cigs vs. T-cigs

Electronic cigarettes may be less harmful than cigarettes but may still be dangerous. Under which circumstances should a person use electronic cigarettes? Will they fill your body with plastic?

Electronic cigarettes can contain propylene glycol or vegetable glycerine with nicotine (and in at least two cases polyethylene glycol 400) to form a solution that when heated by an atomizer, produces a visible vapour that provides nicotine to the bloodstream via the lungs when inhaled.

Electronic cigarettes have not been studied enough by scientists in laboratories to form conclusive evidence that their use is either beneficial or harmful to humans. However, some are concerned that unknown side-effects could occur with continuous, consistent use of electronic cigarettes, including cancer.

Behaviour surrounding their use is worrisome because e-cigs are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, they may seem attractive to children, they are not closely regulated, and their use makes it very easy to overdose on nicotine even for experienced smokers.

Additionally, they're being marketed to children.

Literature Exploring Drug Use in Society

C3H8O2... WTF Is That?

IUPAC name: Propane-1,2-diol Other names: Propylene glycol; α-Propylene glycol; 1,2-Propanediol; 1,2-Dihydroxypropane; Methyl ethyl glycol (MEG); Methylethylene glycol
IUPAC name: Propane-1,2-diol Other names: Propylene glycol; α-Propylene glycol; 1,2-Propanediol; 1,2-Dihydroxypropane; Methyl ethyl glycol (MEG); Methylethylene glycol | Source

Do E-cigs Impact Society?

Are electronic cigarettes safe to use in public?

Many countries, states, cities, companies, bars and restaurants, and other organizations are banning the use of electronic cigarettes. There are a variety of reasons for their ban.

In 'Drugs And Society' by Glen R. Hanson, Peter J. Venturelli, Annette E. Fleckenstein, the implications the use of drugs has on society is explored in detail. The findings are quite fascinating.


De-icing your lungs?

Many articles about e-cigarettes will focus on the legality of their use and sale, their addictiveness, and the demographics who uses them. What few articles mention though, is what the ingredients in electronic cigarettes are and why you may not want them in your body.

Propylene glycol is basically plastic. Actually it's an additive for manufacturing plastic. The single largest use of PG is for the production of unsaturated polyester resins. It is also used as a humectant (an additive that keeps something moist), and as a preservative for food and tobacco. Mmm, yummy.

Propylene glycol has similar thermal properties to ethylene glycol in that it can lower the freezing point of water when added to it. As a result, propylene glycol is often used as aircraft de-icing fluid, according to Steve Ritter's article What's That Stuff?" on the C&EN website.

Another fun fact: disclosure of which chemicals are in any given electronic cigarette are often not made available by manufacturers or retailers. The most recent information regarding the health effects on humans of acute exposure to propylene glycol by inhalation is from 2002. Please find this information made available by the EPA at the bottom of this article.

Video says E-cigs are Harmful

Worried About Your Health? Get this App and Get Tested

Formaldehyde in Cigarettes; Nicotine could Kill a Child

You are probably not a doctor (although, you might be), and you probably rely on the advice of experts for medical information and health recommendations. Using your best judgement, do you think that electronic cigarettes are safe to use? Would you recommend using an electronic cigarette to your friends and family? How about your kids?

Take a look at this video from reports in France. It says that e-cigarettes contain level of formaldehyde near that of tobacco cigarettes. What? I do not know if that information is true, but if it is, it's not good!

The reports urge people to understand that electronic cigarettes are not healthy. Furthermore, the reports say that some models of e-cigarette do not have protective safety caps even though they have enough nicotine to kill a child. That is a liability. Yikes!


Quick facts


  • The molecular formula for propylene glycol is C3H8O2
  • It is a clear and colorless liquid and is non-corrosive
  • It is unknown whether or not is adversely affects human health
  • It is a main ingredient in electronic cigarettes and windshield washer liquid
  • Using it, you might look cool to some people (but they are pathetic losers)
  • Plastic boogers – your snot turns white and is now made of plastic

Ready for the formula? It's CH3CHOHCH2OH

The molecular formula for propylene glycol is C3H8O2. It is a clear and colourless liquid and is non-corrosive.

C3H8O2 can accumulate in your body from the use of shampoo, deodorant, moisturisers and creams, pain medication and a host of food products. So there's probably already enough in there without the use of e-cigs.

E-cigarettes offer you the opportunity to pay money to suck PG directly into the center of your body.


What Should You Do About It?

At best, e-cigarettes are neutral for your health and at worst they are detrimental to your health. How bad for you are they?

You'll need good luck if you are currently using an electronic cigarette! Because the health effects are largely unknown, using an e-cig is a gamble and you'll need all the luck you can get.

Enjoy!

This Guy Looks Really Cool; Not

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Propylene Glycol Reference from the EPA

It looks like a few people have looked into it before. It's surprising there's not a lot of available data as to the effects of inhalation on humans. Shocking!

Check out this Propylene Glycol Reference List from the EPA:


Support: [] - Acute Toxicity to Daphnids (Daphnia Magna) under Static Conditions, with Cover Letter Dated 8/28/96 (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #89960000203S . 1996.
Code: 8

Methoxypropanol, dipropylene glycol methyl ether. S.Hirzel Verlag, P.O.Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1997.vii, 142p.Bibl.ref. 1997.
Code: 8

A 2-Year Vapor Inhalation Oncogenicity Study & Evaluation of Hepatic Cellular Proliferation & P450 Enzyme Induction in B6c3f1 Mice W/Cover Letter Dated 06/02/99 (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86990000051S . 1999.
Code: 9

2-Year Vapor Inhl Chronic/Oncogenicity Study & Evaluation of Hepatic & Renal Cellular Proliferation, P450 Enzyme Induction & Protein Droplet Nephropathy W/Cover Letter Dated 060299. EPA/OTS; Doc #86990000050 . 1999.
Code: 9

Initial Submission: Letter from Ciba Specialty Chems Inc to Usepa Re Acute Toxicity Studies of Alcopol 0 70pg, Collafix Pp2, & Cfr 5651/Magnafloc 1697, W/Attchmts & Dated 12/23/98. EPA/OTS; Doc #88990000073 . 1999.
Code: 9

Comparative Metabolism and Disposition of Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether and Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Male Rats with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001230 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: Inhalation Teratology Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001233 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: Inhalation Teratology Probe Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001232 . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in an Vitro Chromosomal Aberration Assay Utilizing Chinese Hamster Ovary (Cho) Cells (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001243S . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in the Ames Salmonella/Mammalian-Microsome Bacterial Mutagenicity Assay (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001244S . 2000.
Code: 9

Nonlinear Kinetics of Inhaled Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Fischer 344 Rats Following Single and Repeated Exposures (Final Report) with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001164 . 2000.
Code: 9

Analysis of Dowanol Cx, a Mixture of Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether & Propylene Glycol Isobutyl Ether in the Aquatic Environment (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001114S . 2000.
Code: 8

Evaluation of the Acute Dermal Toxicity of Dowanol-Pnb in Rat with Attachments (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001250S . 2000.
Code: 9

Evaluation of the Acute Oral Toxicity of Dowanol-Pnb in the Rat (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001246S . 2000.
Code: 9

Results of Range Finding Toxicological Test on Three Samples of 4-Tert Octyl Phenol. EPA/OTS; Doc #40-5462011 . 2000.
Code: 8

Blood Pharmacokinetics of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether and Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether Acetate in Male F-344 Rats after Dermal Application, with Cover Letter Dated 2/10/2000. EPA/OTS; Doc #FYI-OTS-0600-1385 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: A 13-Week Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats and Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001229 . 2000.
Code: 9

Warning for oral solution. AIDS Patient Care STDS 14(9):519-20. 2000.
Code: 8

Odor Evaluation Study on Dowtherm 209 Coolant (Dowanol Pm; Monomethyl Ether of Propylene Glycol) in Humans. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001220 . 2000.
Code: 8

Assessment of the Oral Toxicity, Including the Haemolytic Activity of Dowanol-Pnb in the Rat: 14-Day Study with Attachments. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001253 . 2000.
Code: 9

Chronic Skin Absorption of Propylene Glycol Methyl Ether (33b) and Dipropylene Glycol Methyl Ether (50b) in Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001219 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether: An Acute Vapor Inhalation Study in Fischer 344 Rats (Final Report) with Attachments (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001245S . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (Pgme): 21-Day Dermal Study in New Zealand White Rabbits. EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001162 . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether: 2-Week Vapor Inhalation Study in Rats and Mice (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001235S . 2000.
Code: 9

Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether: Two-Week Vapor Inhalation Study with Fischer 344 Rats (Final Report) (Sanitized). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001260S . 2000.
Code: 9

Subchronic (13-Wk) Dermal Toxicity Study with Propylene Glycol-N-Butyl Ether in Rats (Final Report). EPA/OTS; Doc #86-890001257 . 2000.
Code: 9

Alfons, K. and Engstrom, S. Drug compatibility with the sponge phases formed in monoolein, water, and propylene glycol or poly(ethylene glycol). J Pharm Sci 87(12):1527-30. 1998.
Code: 8

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Code: 8

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Corley, R. A., Crissman, J. W., Redmond, J. M., McGuirk, R. J., Cieszlak, F. S., and Stott, W. T. Adaptive Metabolic and Pathologic Changes following Chronic Inhalation of Propylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether in Rats and Mice. Occupational Hygiene, Vol.2, Nos.1-6, pages 319-328, 24 references, 1996 AB - The temporal relationships between propylene-glycol-monomethyl-ether (107982) (PGME) induced metabolic and morphological changes in rats and mice which have been chronically exposed to up to 3,000 parts per million (ppm) of PGME vapors were characterized.B6C3F1-mice and F344-rats were exposed to 300, 1,000, or 3,000ppm for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week, for up to 2 years.Results indicated that there is potential for adaptive biochemical and cellular changes in response to chemical exposure to modify the toxicity of PGME in rats and mice.Nearly all inhaled PGME was absorbed, resulting in high systemic levels of PGME.These levels may result in central nervous system depression and the clinically observable sedation of exposed animals.A disruption in male rats was noted in the processing of alpha2micro-globulin resulting in mild degenerative effects in renal tubule epithelial cells.The pronounced sedation of rats and mice exposed to 3,000ppm resolved by the second week of exposure.The induction of O-dealkylase activity in these animals suggests an increase in the potential of metabolized PGME via its major metabolic route to propylene-glycol and then to carbon-dioxide.Exposed animals may also have effectively enhanced PGME metabolism by increasing the number of hepatocytes in response to PGME exposure resulting in the increase in liver weights.Clearly defined, treatment related renal effects were only observed in male rats.The authors conclude that high concentrations of PGME cause an adaptive hepatic response in both sexes of rats and mice that is partially reversed in rats. 1996.
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Elliott, R. C., Jones, J. R., McElvenny, D. M., Pennington, M. J., Northage, C., Clegg, T. A., Clarke, S. D., Hodgson, J. T., and Osman, J. Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation. Health and Safety Executive [see comments]. Am J Ind Med 1999 Nov;36(5):557-72 . 1999.
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Emiliani, S., Van den Bergh, M., Vannin, A. S., Biramane, J., and Englert, Y. Comparison of ethylene glycol, 1,2-propanediol and glycerol for cryopreservation of slow-cooled mouse zygotes, 4-cell embryos and blastocysts. Hum Reprod 15(4):905-10. 2000.
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Farshid, A. A., Rajan, A., and Nair, M. K. Ultrastructural pathology of the lymphoid organs in Japanese quail embryos in experimental ochratoxicosis. Indian Veterinary Journal; 73 (12).1996.1225-1230. 1996.
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Farshid, A. A. and Rajan, R. Assessment of the cell-mediated immune response of Japanese quails in experimental ochratoxicosis. Indian Veterinary Journal; 73 (11).1996.1117-1121. 1996.
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Farshid, A. A., Rajan, A., and Nair, M. K. Ultrastructural pathology of the lymphoid organs in Japanese quail embryos in experimental ochratoxicosis. Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences; 27 (1).1998.21-26. 1998.
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Gabiga, H., Cal, K., and Janicki, S. Effect of penetration enhancers on isosorbide dinitrate penetration through rat skin from a transdermal therapeutic system. Int J Pharm 199(1):1-6. 2000.
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Gallacher, G. and Maibach, H. I. Is atopic dermatitis a predisposing factor for experimental acute irritant contact dermatitis? Contact Dermatitis; 38 (1).1998.1-4. 1998.
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Gao, D. Y., Neff, K., Xiao, H. Y., Matsubayashi, H., Cui, X. D., Bonderman, P., Bonderman, D., Harvey, K., McIntyre, J. A., Critser, J., Miraglia, C. C., and Reid, T. Development of optimal techniques for cryopreservation of human platelets. I. Platelet activation during cold storage (at 22 and 8 degrees C) and cryopreservation. Cryobiology 38(3):225-35. 1999.
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Garnier, R. [Acute poisoning with industrial products]. Rev Prat 50(4):377-84. 2000.
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Garzon-De la Mora, P., Garcia-Lopez, P. M., Garcia-Estrada, J., Navarro-Ruiz, A., Villanueva-Michel, T., Villarreal-de Puga, L. M., and Casillass-Ochoa, J. Casimiroa edulis seed extracts show anticonvulsive properties in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 68(1-3):275-82. 1999.
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George, J. and Murray, E. Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Glycol and Propylene Glycol. Govt Reports Announcements & Index (GRA&I), Issue 05, 1998 . 1997.
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Germann, P. G., Ockert, D., and Heinrichs, M. Pathology of the oropharyngeal cavity in six strains of rats: Predisposition of Fischer 344 rats for inflammatory and degenerative changes. Toxicologic Pathology; 26 (2).1998.283-289. 1998.
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Gilmore, J. A., Liu, J., Gao, D. Y., and Critser, J. K. Determination of optimal cryoprotectants and procedures for their addition and removal from human spermatozoa. Hum Reprod 1997 Jan;12(1):112-8 . 1997.
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Glover, M. L. and Reed, M. D. Propylene glycol: safe diluent that continues to cause harm. Pharmacotherapy; VOL 16 ISS 4 1996, P690-693, (REF 18) . 1996.
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Godwin, D. A. and Michniak, B. B. Influence of drug lipophilicity on terpenes as transdermal penetration enhancers. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 25(8):905-15. 1999.
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Gotvajn, A. Z. and Zagorc-Koncan, J. Laboratory simulation of biodegradation of chemicals in surface waters: closed bottle and respirometric test. Chemosphere 38(6):1339-46. 1999.
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Groning, R. and Kuhland, U. Pulsed release of nitroglycerin from transdermal drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm 193(1):57-61. 1999.
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group, Bibra working. Propylene Glycol. TA:Toxicity profile.BIBRA Toxicology International PG:16 p YR:1996 IP: VI. 1996.
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group, N. T. P. working. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 1-Chloro-2-Propanol (Technical grade) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (drinking water studies). TA:National Toxicology Program Technical Report Series PG:264 p YR:1998 IP: VI:477 . 1998.
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Guerriero, F. J., Seaman, C. W., Sprague, G. L., Sutton, T. J., and Toseland, C. D. Developmental toxicity in rats treated orally with 2-(2-iodoethyl)-1,3-propanediol diacetate. Toxicologist 2000 Mar;54(1):291-2 . 2000.
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Guin, J. D. Contact Dermatitis and Other Contact Reactions. Lieberman, P.And J.A.Anderson (Ed.).Current Clinical Practice: Allergic Diseases: Diagnosis and Treatment.X+402p.Humana Press Inc.: Totowa, New Jersey, USA.Isbn 0-89603-367-8.; 0 (0).1997.233-254. 1997.
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Gupta, A. K., Einarson, T. R., Summerbell, R. C., and Shear, N. H. Overview of topical antifungal therapy in dermatomycoses: North American perspective. Drugs; VOL 55 ISS May 1998, P645-674, (REF 447) . 1998.
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Gupta, G., Dawn, G., and Forsyth, A. The trend of allergic contact dermatitis in the elderly population over a 15-year period. Contact Dermatitis; 41 (1).1999.48-50. 1999.
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Hall, S. and Godwin-Saad, E. Effects of Pollutants on Freshwater Organisms. Water Environment Research; 68 (4).1996.776-784. 1996.
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Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Increase in Calcium Influx by Propylene Glycol at Mouse Motor Nerve Terminals. In Vitro Toxicology.A Journal of Molecular and Cellular Toxicology, Vol.9, No.4, pages 373-375, 10 references, 1996 . 1996.
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Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Facilitation of calcium influx by propylene glycol through the voltage- dependent calcium channels in PC12 cells. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 105(3):179-84. 1999.
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Hattori, T. and Maehashi, H. Rise in intracellular calcium concentration by propylene glycol in PC12 cells. Int J Neurosci 99(1-4):151-7. 1999.
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Hattori, T., Maehashi, H., Miyazawa, T., and Naito, M. Enhancement of dopamine release by propylene glycol in PC12 cells. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 107(3-4):323-9. 2000.
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Havemann, G. D., Sampson, E. M., and Bobik, T. A. PduA is a shell protein of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent degradation of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol 184(5):1253-61. 2002.
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Heylings, J. R., Clowes, H. M., Cumberbatch, M., Dearman, R. J., Fielding, I., Hilton, J., and Kimber, I. Sensitization to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene: influence of vehicle on absorption and lymph node activation. Toxicology 109(1):57-65. 1996.
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Ho, H. O., Chen, L. C., Lin, H. M., and Sheu, M. T. Penetration enhancement by menthol combined with a solubilization effect in a mixed solvent system. J Control Release 51(2-3):301-11. 1998.
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Hostynek, J. J. and Magee, P. S. Fragrance allergens: Classification and ranking by QSAR. Toxicology in Vitro; 11 (4).1997.377-384. 1997.
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Huang, K., Rudolph, F. B., and Bennett, G. N. Characterization of methylglyoxal synthase from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and its use in the formation of 1, 2- propanediol. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(7):3244-7. 1999.
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Imamura, S., Nozawa, I., Imamura, M., and Murakami, Y. Pathogenesis of experimental aural cholesteatoma in the chinchilla. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 61(2):84-91. 1999.
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Inoue, K., Nakazawa, K., Fujimori, K., Ohno, Y., Takanaka, A., Itagaki, H., Kato, S., Kobayashi, T., and Kuroiwa, Y. Evaluation of stinging-inducing chemicals using cultured neuronal cells: An electrophysiological approach. Toxicology in Vitro; 10 (4).1996.455-462. 1996.
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Ishidate, M. Jr, Miura, K. F., and Sofuni, T. Chromosome aberration assays in genetic toxicology testing in vitro. Mutation Research; 404 (1-2).1998.167-172. 1998.
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Ishiwata, H., Nishijima, M., Fukasawa, Y., Ito, Y., and Yamada, T. Evaluation of the contents of BHA, BHT, propylene glycol, and sodium saccharin in foods and estimation of daily intake based on the results of official inspection in Japan in fiscal year 1994. Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan; 39 (2).1998.89-100. 1998.
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Jaiswal, J., Poduri, R., and Panchagnula, R. Transdermal delivery of naloxone: ex vivo permeation studies. Int J Pharm 179(1):129-34. 1999.
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Janik, M., Kleinhans, F. W., and Hagedorn, M. Overcoming a permeability barrier by microinjecting cryoprotectants into zebrafish embryos (Brachydanio rerio). Cryobiology 2000 Aug;41(1):25-34 . 2000.
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Jewgenow, K., Penfold, L. M., Meyer, H. H., and Wildt, D. E. Viability of small preantral ovarian follicles from domestic cats after cryoprotectant exposure and cryopreservation. J Reprod Fertil 112(1):39-47. 1998.
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Johnson, C. L., Pechonick, E., Park, S. D., Havemann, G. D., Leal, N. A., and Bobik, T. A. Functional genomic, biochemical, and genetic characterization of the Salmonella pduO gene, an ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase gene. J Bacteriol 183(5):1577-84. 2001.
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Johnson, W. Final report on the safety assessment of Propylene Glycol (PG) Dicaprylate, PG Dicaprylate-Dicaprate, PG Dicocoate, PG Dipelargonate, PG Isostearate, PG Laurate, PG Myristate, PG Oleate, PG Oleate SE, PG Dioleate, PG Dicaprate, PG Diisostearate, and PG Dilaurate. International Journal of Toxicology; 18 (Suppl.2).1999.35-52. 1999.
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Jones, T. D. On 'toxicity equivalent factors' and 'relative potency' to account for differential toxicity and carcinogenicity: Concerns about uncommon effects of dose in animal experiments and environmental exposures to humans. Environmetrics; 9 (5).1998.525-539. 1998.
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Kang, L., Jun, H. W., and McCall, J. W. Physicochemical studies of lidocaine-menthol binary systems for enhanced membrane transport. Int J Pharm 206(1-2):35-42. 2000.
Code: 8

Karami, K. and Beronius, P. On iontophoretic delivery enhancement: ionization and mobility of lidocaine hydrochloride in propylene glycol. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 168 ISS Jun 8 1998, P85-95, (REF 17) . 1998.
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Karran, G. and Legge, M. Non-enzymatic formation of formaldehyde in mouse oocyte freezing mixtures. Hum Reprod 11(12):2681-6. 1996.
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Kataoka, M., Sasaki, M., Hidalgo, A. R., Nakano, M., and Shimizu, S. Glycolic acid production using ethylene glycol-oxidizing microorganisms. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 65(10):2265-70. 2001.
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Kedzierewicz, F., Darme, X., Etienne, A., Lemut, J., Hoffman, M., and Maincent, P. Preparation of silicone microspheres by emulsion polymerization: application to the encapsulation of a hydrophilic drug. J Microencapsul 15(2):227-36. 1998.
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Kellner, D. L. Sorption of the Aircraft Deicing Fluid Component Methyl-Benzotriazole in Soil. /u0014 . 1999.
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Kerai, M. Dj, Waterfield, C. J., and Timbrell, J. A. The Effects of Propylene Glycol on Paracetamol Toxicity in Hamsters. Annual Progress of the British Toxological Society, Warwick, England, Uk, March 24-26, 1997.Human & Experimental Toxicology; 16 (7).1997.407. 1997.
Code: 9

Kimber, I., Dearman, R. J., and Basketter, D. A. Estimation of relative skin sensitization potency using the local lymph node assay. Annual Congress of the British Toxicology Society, Stoke on Trent, England, Uk, April 18-21, 1999.Yhuman & Experimental Toxicology; 18 (8).1999.524. 1999.
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Kiriyama, A., Sugahara, M., Yoshikawa, Y., Kiso, Y., and Takada, K. Bioavailability of oral dosage forms of a new HIV-1 protease inhibitor, KNI-272, in beagle dogs. Biopharm.Drug Dispos.; VOL 17 ISS Mar 1996, P125-134, (REF 20) . 1996.
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Kolloffel, W. J., Weekers, L. E., and Goldhoorn, P. B. Pharmacokinetics of propylene glycol after rectal administration. Pharm World Sci 18(3):109-13. 1996.
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Kowalczyk, C. L., Stachecki, J. J., Schultz, J. F., Leach, R. E., and Armant, D. R. Effects of alcohols on murine preimplantation development: Relationship to relative membrane disordering potency. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research; 20 (3).1996.566-571. 1996.
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Kruszewski, F. H., Walker, T. L., and Dipasquale, L. C. Evaluation of a human corneal epithelial cell line as an in vitro model for assessing ocular irritation. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology; 36 (2).1997.130-140. 1997.
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Krzymien, M., Day, M., Shaw, K., Mohmad, R., and Sheehan, S. The role of feed composition on the composting process. II. Effect on the release of volatile organic compounds and odours. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a Toxic-Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering; 34 (6).1999.1369-1396. 1999.
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Kucherenko, Y. U. and Moiseev, V. A. The use of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and refractometry for investigation of the distribution of nonelectrolytes of N-alcohol series between human red blood cells and extracellular medium. Membr Cell Biol 13(5):633-44. 2000.
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Kulkarni, A. S. and Hopfinger, A. J. Membrane-interaction QSAR analysis: Application to the estimation of eye irritation by organic compounds. Pharmaceutical Research (New York); 16 (8).1999.1245-1253. 1999.
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Kusunoki, J., Kai, A., Yanagawa, Y., Monma, C., Shingaki, M., Obata, H., Itoh, T., Ohta, K., Kudoh, Y., and Nakamura, A. [Biochemical and molecular characterization of Salmonella ser. enteritidis phage type 1 isolated from food poisoning outbreaks in Tokyo]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 73(5):437-44. 1999.
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Kuznetsova, N., Chi, S. L., and Leikin, S. Sugars and polyols inhibit fibrillogenesis of type I collagen by disrupting hydrogen-bonded water bridges between the helices. Biochemistry 37(34):11888-95. 1998.
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LaDou, J. and Rohm, T. The international electronics industry. Int J Occup Environ Health 1998 Jan-Mar;4(1):1-18 . 1998.
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Laitinen, J. Biomonitoring of technical grade 1-alkoxy-2-propanol acetates by analysing urinary 2-alkoxypropionic acids. Sci Total Environ 1997 Jun 20;199(1-2):31-9 . 1997.
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Laitinen, J., Liesivuori, J., and Savolainen, H. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to 1-methoxy-2-propanol. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 694(1):93-8. 1997.
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LaKind, J. S., McKenna, E. A., Hubner, R. P., and Tardiff, R. G. A review of the comparative mammalian toxicity of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. Crit Rev Toxicol 29(4):331-65. 1999.
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Lanigan, R. S. Special report: reproductive and developmental toxicity of ethylene glycol and its ethers. Int J Toxicol 1999;18(Suppl 2):53-67 . 1999.
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Lansdown, A. B. and Taylor, A. Zinc and titanium oxides: promising UV-absorbers but what influence do they have on the intact skin? Int.J.Cosmet.Sci.; VOL 19 ISS 4 1997, P167-172, (REF 10) . 1997.
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Larrucea, E., Arellano, A., Santoyo, S., and Ygartua, P. Combined effect of oleic acid and propylene glycol on the percutaneous penetration of tenoxicam and its retention in the skin. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 52(2):113-9. 2001.
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Lee, B. J., Lee, T. S., Cha, B. J., Kim, S. H., and Kim, W. B. Percutaneous absorption and histopathology of a poloxamer-based formulation of capsaicin analog. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 159 ISS Dec 15 1997, P105-114, (REF 21) . 1997.
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Lee, B. J., Cui, J. H., Parrott, K. A., Ayres, J. W., and Sack, R. L. Percutaneous absorption and model membrane variations of melatonin in aqueous-based propylene glycol and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin vehicles. Arch Pharm Res 21(5):503-7. 1998.
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Leone-Bay, A., Leipold, H., Agarwal, R., Rivera, T., and Baughman, R. A. Evolution of an oral heparin dosing solution. Drugs Future; VOL 22 ISS Aug 1997, P885-891, (REF 22) . 1997.
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Leppik, I. E. Role of new and established antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia 1998;39 Suppl 5:2-6 . 1998.
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Levang, A. K., Zhao, K., and Singh, J. Effect of ethanol/propylene glycol on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of aspirin, biophysical changes and macroscopic barrier properties of the skin. Int J Pharm 181(2):255-63. 1999.
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Li, B., Pinch, H., and Birt, D. F. Influence of vehicle, distant topical delivery, and biotransformation on the chemopreventive activity of apigenin, a plant flavonoid, in mouse skin. Pharm Res 13(10):1530-4. 1996.
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Li, B. and Birt, D. F. In vivo and in vitro percutaneous absorption of cancer preventive flavonoid apigenin in different vehicles in mouse skin. Pharm.Res.; VOL 13 ISS Nov 1996, P1710-1715, (REF 9) . 1996.
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Liesivuori, J., Laitinen, J., and Savolainen, H. Rat model for renal effects of 2-alkoxyalcohols and their acetates. Arch Toxicol 73(4-5):229-32. 1999.
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Lin, S. Y., Duan, K. J., and Lin, T. C. Microscopic FT-IR/DSC system used to simultaneously investigate the conversion process of protein structure in porcine stratum corneum after pretreatment with skin penetration enhancers. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 18(3):175-81. 1996.
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Liu, C. J., Ueda, M., Kosaka, S., Hirata, T., Yokomise, H., Inui, K., Hitomi, S., and Wada, H. A newly developed solution enhances thirty-hour preservation in a canine lung transplantation model. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 112(3):569-76. 1996.
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Longo, D. L., Duffey, P. L., Kopp, W. C., Heyes, M. P., Alvord, W. G., Sharfman, W. H., Schmidt, P. J., Rubinow, D. R., and Rosenstein, D. L. Conditioned immune response to interferon-gamma in humans. Clin Immunol 90(2):173-81. 1999.
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Loskutoff, N. M., Simmons, H. A., Goulding, M., Thompson, G., De Jongh, T., and Simmons, L. G. Species and individual variations in cryoprotectant toxicities and freezing resistances of epididymal sperm from African antelope. Animal Reproduction Science; 42 (1-4).1996.527-535. 1996.
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Louik, C., Frumkin, H., Ellenbecker, M. J., Goldman, R. H., Werler, M. M., and Mitchell, A. A. Use of a job-exposure matrix to assess occupational exposures in relation to birth defects. J Occup Environ Med 42(7):693-703. 2000.
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Machate, T. and Kettrup, A. Spectrophotometric method for the determination of 1,2-propylene glycol. Fresenius' Journal of Analytical Chemistry; 360 (1).1998.137-138. 1998.
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Mahadevan, M. M., McIntosh, Q., Miller, M. M., Breckinridge, S. M., Maris, M., and Moutos, D. M. Formaldehyde in cryoprotectant propanediol and effect on mouse zygotes. Hum Reprod 1998 Apr;13(4):979-82 . 1998.
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Mailhes, J. B., Young, D., and London, S. N. 1,2-propanediol-induced premature centromere separation in mouse oocytes and aneuploidy in one-cell zygotes. Biol Reprod 57(1):92-8. 1997.
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Malandain, H. and Cano, Y. An Enzymatic Assay for the Emergency Diagnosis of Propylene Glycol Intoxication. 48th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA, July 28-August 1, 1996.Clinical Chemistry; 42 (6 Part 2).1996.S213. 1996.
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Mallidis, C., Phelan, D., Coles, M., and Jones, G. Does the composition of propane-1,2-diol alter over time? J Assist Reprod Genet 13(1):53-5. 1996.
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Malonne, H., Fontaine, J., and Moes, A. In vitro/in vivo characterization of a tramadol HCl depot system composed of monoolein and water. Biol Pharm Bull 23(5):627-31. 2000.
Code: 8

Manganaro, A. M. and Wertz, P. W. The effects of permeabilizers on the in vitro penetration of propranolol through porcine buccal epithelium. Mil Med 161(11):669-72. 1996.
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Massaad, C., Entezami, F., Massade, L., Benahmed, M., Olivennes, F., Barouki, R., and Hamamah, S. How can chemical compounds alter human fertility? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 100(2):127-37. 2002.
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Matthews, H. B. Chemical Metabolism and Toxicokinetics. Crisp Data Base National Institutes Of Health . 1996.
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Mauldin, R. E., Goodall, M. J., Volz, S. A., Griffin, D. L., Petty, E. J., and Johnston, J. J. Zinc phosphide residue determination in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry; 45 (6).1997.2107-2111. 1997.
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McCain, W. C., Lee, R., Johnson, M. S., Whaley, J. E., Ferguson, J. W., Beall, P., and Leach, G. Acute oral toxicity study of pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin, and DEET in the laboratory rat. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health; 50 (2).1997.113-124. 1997.
Code: 8

McClanahan, S., Hunter, J., Murphy, M., and Valberg, S. Propylene glycol toxicosis in a mare. Veterinary and Human Toxicology; 40 (5).1998.294-296. 1998.
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Mead, C. and Pentreath, V. W. Evaluation of toxicity indicators in rat primary astrocytes, C6 glioma and human 1231N1 astrocytoma cells: Can gliotoxicity be distinguished from cytotoxicity? Archives of Toxicology; 72 (6).1998.372-380. 1998.
Code: 8

Medlicott, N. J., Foster, K. A., Audus, K. L., Gupta, S., and Stella, V. J. Comparison of the effects of potential parenteral vehicles for poorly water soluble anticancer drugs (organic cosolvents and cyclodextrin solutions) on cultured endothelial cells (HUV-EC). J Pharm Sci 87(9):1138-43. 1998.
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Meshitsuka, S., Inoue, M., Seki, A., Koeda, T., and Takeshita, K. Screening of urine by one-dimensional and pulsed-field gradient two- dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy: intoxication by propylene glycol in an infant patient. Clin Chim Acta 279(1-2):47-54. 1999.
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Mirochnick, M., Clarke, D. F., McNamara, E. R., and Cabral, H. Bioequivalence of a propylene glycol-based liquid dapsone preparation and dapsone tablets. Am J Health Syst Pharm 57(19):1775-7. 2000.
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Mitchell, H. L. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Gram-Positive Coccus Microorganisms. /u0019 . 2000.
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Miyoshi, S., Pate, J. L., and Palmquist, D. L. Effects of propylene glycol drenching on energy balance, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, ovarian function and conception in dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 68(1-2):29-43. 2001.
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Mochimaru, M. and Sakurai, H. Effects of organic solvents and tentoxin on enzyme-bound ATP synthesis in isolated chloroplast coupling factor 1. Photosynthesis Research; 57 (3).1998.305-315. 1998.
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Mori, T., Sakimoto, M., Kagi, T., and Sakai, T. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from a vinyl alcohol oligomer-degrading Geotrichum fermentans; stabilization with Triton X-100 and activity toward polymers with polymerization degrees less than 20. 1998.
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Morshed, K. M., Jain, S. K., and McMartin, K. E. Propylene glycol-mediated cell injury in a primary culture of human proximal tubule cells. Toxicol Sci 46(2):410-7. 1998.
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Moser, K., Kriwet, K., Froehlich, C., Kalia, Y. N., and Guy, R. H. Supersaturation: enhancement of skin penetration and permeation of a lipophilic drug. Pharm Res 18(7):1006-11. 2001.
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Mukaida, T., Wada, S., Takahashi, K., Pedro, P. B., An, T. Z., and Kasai, M. Vitrification of human embryos based on the assessment of suitable conditions for 8-cell mouse embryos. Hum Reprod 13(1O):2874-9. 1998.
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Mura, P., Faucci, M. T., Bramanti, G., and Corti, P. Evaluation of transcutol as a clonazepam transdermal permeation enhancer from hydrophilic gel formulations. Eur J Pharm Sci 9(4):365-72. 2000.
Code: 8

Murakami, T., Yoshioka, M., Yumoto, R., Higashi, Y., Shigeki, S., Ikuta, Y., and Yata, N. Topical delivery of keloid therapeutic drug, tranilast, by combined use of oleic acid and propylene glycol as a penetration enhancer: evaluation by skin microdialysis in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 50(1):49-54. 1998.
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Mushrush, G. W., Basak, S. C., Slone, J. E., Beal, E. J., Basu, S., Stalick, W. M., and Hardy, D. R. Computational Study of the Environmental Fate of Selected Aircraft Fuel System Deicing Compounds. Journal of Environmental Science and Health.Part A: Environmental Science and Engineering and Toxic and Hazardous Substance Control, Vol.A32, No.8, pages 2201-2211, 17 references, 1997 . 1997.
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Neurath, G., Franke, S., Francke, W., and Marquardt, H. Mutagenicity of Trichlorinated Dipropylether Isomers. 39th Spring Meeting of the German Society for Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Mainz, Germany, March 17-19, 1998.Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology; 357 (4 Suppl.).1998.R142. 1998.
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Newton, H., Fisher, J., Arnold, J. R., Pegg, D. E., Faddy, M. J., and Gosden, R. G. Permeation of human ovarian tissue with cryoprotective agents in preparation for cryopreservation. Hum Reprod 13(2):376-80. 1998.
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Niazy, E. M. Differences in penetration enhancing effect of Azone through excised rabbit, rat, hairless mouse, guinea pig and human skins. Int.J.Pharm.; VOL 130 ISS Mar 22 1996, P225-230, (REF 24) . 1996.
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Noddegaard, F. and Kennaway, D. J. A method of achieving physiological plasma levels of melatonin in the chicken by oral administration. J Pineal Res 27(3):129-38. 1999.
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Nordic steering group for assessment of health effects of, chemicals. Health effects of selected chemicals 4-5. 2,2ï-Oxydiethanol (Diethylene glycol). TA:Nord PG:317-41 YR:1999 IP: VI:15 . 1999.
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Ogier de Baulny, B., Labbe, C., and Maisse, G. Membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, ATP content, and motility of the European catfish (Silurus glanis) testicular spermatozoa after freezing with different cryoprotectants. Cryobiology 39(2):177-84. 1999.
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Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2

p1. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information
p1. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information | Source
p2. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information
p2. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information | Source
p3. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information
p3. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information | Source
p4. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information
p4. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information | Source
p5. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information
p5. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Screening-Level Literature Review Chemical Name: Propylene glycol CASRN: 57-55-6 Date of screening-level review: 1/1/2002 Summary of Available Toxicity Information | Source

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    • wiserworld profile image

      wiserworld 3 years ago

      Very thorough research. Wasn't aware of a lot of these details.

    • teyka profile image
      Author

      teyka 3 years ago

      Thank you for your comments.

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      Tony 3 years ago

      THe author of this article is DEAD wrong on the propylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol . First off, propylene glycol is an organic compound. The acute oral toxicity of propylene glycol is very low, and large quantities are required to cause perceptible health damage in humans; propylene glycol is metabolized in the human body into pyruvic acid (a normal part of the glucose-metabolism process, readily converted to energy), acetic acid (handled by ethanol-metabolism), lactic acid (a normal acid generally abundant during digestion),[15] and propionaldehyde (a potentially hazardous substance).[16][17][18]

      Serious toxicity generally occurs only at plasma concentrations over 1 g/L, which requires extremely high intake over a relatively short period of time. It is considered SAFE by the FDA and is used in many foods and medical products we use on a daily basis. In fact it is the main ingredient in asthma inhalers, nebulizer medications and is used to make the smoke from smoke machines. IT IS SAFE FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION.

      polyethylene glycol is NOT a substance present in any e-cigs. The oNLY time is was ever discovered in an e-cig was in the FDA study they did a few years back. In that study only ONE cartridge tested (out of 30+ cartridges pre-filled from China with Chinese e-liquid) contained polyethylene glycol in a VERY small amount (less than 1%). THe amount found was soo small that it would have no effects on a humans health. polyethylene glycol is NOT an normal ingredient in e-cig liquids. In fact NO american made e-juices contain this substance in ANY form.

      I find this article to be nothing more than an article to SCARE the smoking public away from a life changing and life saving invention in the e-cigarette. Its fear-mongering article like these that help threaten the e-cig industry. People have a bad opinion about e-cigs due to lack of and/or mis-information that articles like these promote. For instance, one of his first sentences "It will fill your body with plastic." is unfounded and backed by NO EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE, and is just bad journalism. Another statement the author makes "Behavior surrounding their use is worrisome because they are being used habitually by a percentage of non-smokers who otherwise would not use nicotine, " again is unfounded and backed by NO CREDIBLE EVIDENCE.

      In fact, much of the article is backed by no credible evidence. The "test findings" he shows are un-related to e-cigs and taken WAYYYYY out of context. It is very obvious that this author have never read a scientific journal in his/her life nor do they understand what the findings they show actually mean in relation to the topic being written about.

      The sad part is most people who read this will take it as gospel. They will think that since he/she attaches some sort of lab/scientific studies and uses big chemistry words that the article must be true, when in fact, it couldn't be more wrong. Its sad, but many people today can not think for themselves or are too lazy to do so. They would rather believe in what someone else is saying rather than finding all the information themselves and coming to and making an informed decision based off of REAL and ACCURATE information.

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      JOE 3 years ago

      if propylene glyco was so bad for human health, than why is it considered SAFE by the FDA? Why would it be used in many of the foods and pharmaceuticals we use on a daily basis. If it was so harmful on a person's lungs, then why is it the main substance used in ASTHMA INHALERS and the medicines used in nebulizers?? propylene glyco is used in MANY products (toxic and non-toxic) that humans use daily. A main reason this is so, is because of the following: "The freezing point of water is depressed when mixed with propylene glycol owing to the effects of dissolution of a solute in a solvent (freezing-point depression); in general, glycols are non-corrosive, have very low volatility and very low toxicity" Yes it is used sometimes in antifreeze, as is many other substances which are non-lethal. Just because it is used in antifreeze does not mean it is lethal. In fact, it is only used in the product called "safe antifreeze", which is a less-toxic version of standard antifreeze and less corrosive. propylene glyco is safe.

      Also, polyethylene glycol 400, is not, nor has ever been an ingredient in e-cig liquids. I find it funny that the author makes this claim, but provides NO DATA to support this. You know why? because there is no data to support this. This whole article is meant to scare the general public who tend to believe anything they ar etold, especially when there are test results and lab studies attached to an article, even though those results have been taken out of context and have NOTHING to do with the main subject of the article, e-cigarettes.

      And for the persons who posted above who found this article to be enlightening, I have a bridge to sell you too, just email me. I require payment up front however, before you can see it.

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      Hypocrites above 3 years ago

      Laughable that both Tony & Joe say don't believe the facts contained here, just believe them? They offer nothing but anti climatic advice and probably use and sell this product. They are telling users that none of the supporting evidence contained here is valid , claim they know better , offer no supporting evidence as a response and continue to deny, deny, deny? Funnier than all that.... Joe wants money in exchange for his/her facts on the topic, oh boy. I guess they both are in a state of denial, very appealing to a user or considered addict of the high dose Nicotine product. Quitting smoking? Just F**king Quit and stop being so dramatically LAZY! Nobody can quit smoking for you , your own will power is the only answer... Money or another quick fix product is not the answer. What harm can it do to check out ALL the FACTS? None! What harm can "Joe or Tony do? Stop you from bothering to check for your self.

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      Jake 3 years ago

      Is this article a Joke? Quit filling your bodies with plastic? Really?! lol Articles like this filled with biased misinformation is what is really smearing the reputation of e-cigs. I'm a long time vaper - I have done the research, hell have of the comments here have quoted directly off of wikipedia. It's freely available if you look.

      I personally make my OWN e-liquid 50% PG 50% VG and flavorings. If I buy liquid -it's all US made listing the ingredients on the bottle. NEVER have I once seen Polyethylene Glycol listed.

      For the record many of us aren't doing this to quit - In my opinion this is not a stop smoking aid - and shouldn't be used as such. I do it in place of smoking and I enjoy it. I have no plans of stopping as the only harmful component of e-liquid is nicotine. A couple of FACTS about nicotine - It's not a carcinogen and its less widely used than Caffeine. Caffeine is arguably MORE abused than nicotine and it is also regarded as being more dangerous. So keep guzzling down those soda's and coffee all day long... and keep telling yourselves that my e-cig 2nd hand smoke effects you and is more hazardous to my health than your Vente latte from Starbucks, you're blind and heavily biased.

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      long time vaper 3 years ago

      Wow. All I can say is wow. Can I just start with the fact that all of this testing was done on animals according to this article? How messed up is that? That animal testing still goes on.

      I am pretty sure that the writer of this article is most likely employed by R.J. Reynolds or Phillip Morris. Who else would spread Nazi Propaganda like this?

      To both sides of the fence. There IS no good study with humans to look back on. So in my opinion, neither side is right. You don't see us vapers though spreading false information and misleading facts though.

      The fact remains that nobody knows what the long term affects are. Until there is factual evidence in my face saying that " its going to kill me " or something, then I am vaping on.

      P.S. im pretty sure im not smoking plastic or antifreeze. Just saying.

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      Another vaper 3 years ago

      I'm having a hard time writing this because my hands are now very stiff from being almost 92% plastic.

      Seriously, this article and author are both incredibly ignorant. Nice survey, also, BTW. How ridiculous. My e-juice contains NO PG—only VG, and even if it did contain PG, PG is NOT harmful. I'm probably wasting my time here, but I couldn't help commenting because of the amount of blatant misinformation in this "article".

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      Wow 3 years ago

      I'm amazed that anyone could make such a compelling argument with such little factual information. If Propylene Glycol is such a dangerous and toxic chemical turning your body to plastic, please proceed to explain why it is aeroslized and mixed into the air in hospitals to be used as a mild anti-bacterial? Surely a hospital is the last place you'd want to be breathing in plastic! Imagine, all this time people with asthma and people in hospitals have been inhaling Propylene Glycol and turning into plastic and yet we only just now figured this out because of e-cigarettes? What a joke.

    • teyka profile image
      Author

      teyka 3 years ago

      Thank you for your comments.

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      Pharmf5 3 years ago

      I'm really enjoying the design and layout of your website. It's a very easy on the eyes which makes it much more pleasant for me to come here and visit more often. Did you hire out a designer to create your theme? Excellent work! efdeecg

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      Pharme148 3 years ago

      Hmm it looks like your site ate my first comment it was extremely geckcea

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      Robert Hamson-Taylor 3 years ago

      Eliquids is main due to which reason, people like e cigarette, people mostly compelling that its not good, because they love traditional cig. But I have seen many cases where people change their view after use it. main reason is e cigs are cheap in price. http://www.e-liquids-uk.co.uk/

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      Zach 3 years ago

      I admire the amount of research you did in to this but some of your inferences are just plain ridiculous, saying Propylene Glycol is essentially plastic because its and additive used to manufacture plastic is like saying lettuce is essentially a cheesburger because its used to make cheesburgers.

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      Mark 2 years ago

      What a ridiculous argument. You should clearly reconsider your career a a journalist if this is the codswallop you are coming out with. E cigs are getting ever more popular in the UK, most bars and pubs (except chains such a Wetherspoons) are fine with you using them, probably because you're not making a mess with cigarettes outside their premises. They are a potential lifesaver and as someone mentioned above PG is used in asthma inhalors and nebulisers, i am pretty sure if it was dangerous it would be the last thing it would be used it. Nothing like a bit of sensationalist, misinforming and misleading journalism. Happy vaping from Scotland, folks.

    • teyka profile image
      Author

      teyka 2 years ago

      Thank you for your comments.

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      isaiah 2 years ago

      well i was going to comment but clearly smarter people than me have already intelligently responded to this ludicrous article. just read on what all you use that uses PG everyday, and really this is more dangerous? just put that critical thinking to good use

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      Fuck you 2 years ago

      Your article is crap, your premises are crap, and your ability to bullshit is outstanding. You present several lies clearly intended to withdraw a negative affectation in your readers.

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      brett 2 years ago

      The person who wrote this article is a shill since I put the cigarettes down and started using an eciggarette I have felt 1000000 times better

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      thug the bunny 2 years ago

      I'm a chemist. There are too many false comments contained in this "article" for me to address, and it is obvious that the author is not only not a scientist, he is not even remotely technical in any way, and he is not even very intelligent.

      Let me just address the comment that made me laugh the most - that PG is actually plastic. Plastics are long polymer chains made of hundreds or thousands of repeating monomers units....ugh, never mind, PG IS NOT a plastic.

    • teyka profile image
      Author

      teyka 2 years ago

      Thank you for your comments.

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