Ebola virus - Pictures, Symptoms, Facts, Treatment
Ebola virus Pictures
What is Ebola virus?
Ebola virus is the infectious agent responsible for the deadly viral hemorrhagic fever. Commonly known by the public as Ebola, a viral genus Ebolavirus or EBOV is one of the many causes of viral hemorrhagic fever syndrome.
The mechanism of this virus is to interfere with the coagulation function of the blood and also with the lining of our body’s blood vessels. As a result of the damage, our serum platelets are unable to provide its function of coagulation thus prompting bleeding and to an end result of hypovolemic shock. This is transmitted through one’s body fluids.
The common Ebola species are the following:
- Zaire ebolavirus – noted to have the highest mortality rate among cases of hemorrhagic fever. The first reported case of this strain was found in Zaire and the affected was a school teacher.
- Sudan ebolavirus – this strain is found identical or has same features with the Zaire species. The spread of this disease has been prompted by unsanitary and wrongly facilitated care to patients.
- Reston ebolavirus – species which were identified in Reston, Virginia but implied that the source was from a Philippine animal facility.
- Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus – a strain first discovered in Africa.
- Bundibugyo ebolavirus - this new species was tested in the United States that resulted to a death rate of 34% among the patients affected.
Clinical presentations of this viral infection Ebola varies from the stage of the disease:
In the early stages of the disease, the patient experiences fever and pharyngitis. Day 5 of the infection would prompt a maculopapular rash which is evident on the patients’ trunk.
As the disease progresses, bleeding tendencies are to be expected. Common sites of bleeding are the puncture sites of an intravenous line and also the mucous membrane. This viral disease shall become terminal thus affecting gravely the patient for to experience tachypnea (increased breathing), hypotension, anuria (inability to pass urine), and coma.
It has been noted that the onset of clinical symptoms of ebolavirus infection is sudden. Patients affected would experience severe headache, arthralgia (joint pains), fever and anorexia. Gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea shall proceed.
Effective treatment for this virus has not been found specific for there are varieties of strains available. But a drug has been widely used to patients, but does not demonstrate effectively against the virus, is Ribavirin. Human convalescent plasma was used in the early times when the disease was identified. This form of treatment also known as DRC has proven its action against the ebolavirus to seven patients out of eight. Two remedies used in conjunction was found to delay deaths to patients affected with ebola virus, these are the human recombinant alpha-2b and hyperimmune equine IgG.
Supportive treatment has been developed in order to provide intravascular volume, proficient electrolytes, good nutrition and comfort to patients. Those who are rendering such services as very much obliged to practice strict barrier protection from patients. Handling the body fluids obtained from the affected patients should be handled correctly and promptly. Little contact to patients is a must but prompt care and treatment should not be hindered.
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is derived from the Ebola River in Zaire, presently known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, for the first noted outbreak was identified in this place’s hospital.
It is highly advised once the diagnosis of Ebola or an outbreak of a viral hemorrhagic fever is noted that contacting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention or known as CDC should be done. Strict isolation to patients who are positively diagnosed with this condition is an early action. Health workers should be very particular in handling this kind of patients. Strict adherence to disease control and viral precautions should be followed accordingly; health education to the public is also a primary responsibility of the health team.
This virus hasn’t been noted endemic in the United States of America. But reports have been filed that a strain of Ebola were found and was acquired by animal workers in the states. This found strain of Ebola virus did not present any grave danger to the infected but poses susceptibility to those who are commonly exposed to infected animals. African-derived Ebola is considered to be one of the common causes of this severe form of hemorrhagic fever. Those with a history of travel to areas of sub-Saharan Africa are perceived to be at risk for this ebolavirus infection. Various places around the world have reported cases of Ebola virus starting the year of 1976. Ebola virus outbreak has great number in Uganda denoting a 25% of deaths in their cases in years 2007 and 2008.
Survival rate of affected patients vary from the causative species of Ebola virus. But it has been stated that the most lethal type of Ebola is the Zaire ebolavirus, having a mortality rate as high as 89%. The Sudan ebolavirus has also been reported to have a mortality rate of 41% to 65% of the total population affected.