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Encephalitis

Updated on October 10, 2014

Encephalitis is the medical term used for describing inflammation, irritation and swelling of the brain due to an infection.

Encephalitis is the medical term used for describing inflammation, irritation and swelling of the brain due to an infection. Encephalitis is a rare neurological condition that often comes on suddenly. Encephalitis means inflammation of the brain. It can occur as a primary illness or as a consequence of another illness.

Once across the blood-brain barrier, the virus enters neural cells, with resultant disruption in cell functioning, perivascular congestion, hemorrhage, and a diffuse inflammatory response that disproportionately affects gray matter over white matter. No, the EEE virus is not passed from horses to humans by contact with body fluids or in other ways. Of the many different viruses that can cause meningoencephalitis, enteroviruses (particularly coxsackievirus and echovirus) are the most common cause in the United States, particularly if the illness occurs in the summer or fall.

Encephalitis is a brain infection typically caused by a virus or bacteria. Encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain tissue, is rare, affecting approximately 1 in 200,000 people each year in the United States. A brain biopsy (surgical gathering of a small tissue sample) may be recommended in some cases where treatment to date has been ineffective and the cause of the encephalitis is unclear.

Viral encephalitis may develop during or after infection with any of several viruses including enteroviruses, influenza, herpes simplex, measles, mumps, rubella, rabies, chicken pox, arboviruses (viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and other insects) such as West Nile virus, and others. Viral encephalitis can be due either to the direct effects of an acute infection, or as one of the sequelae of a latent infection. Some of the viral infections that can cause encephalitis, including measles, mumps, and chicken pox, can be prevented with vaccines given in childhood. To prevent encephalitis caused by West Nile virus or other viruses transmitted by mosquitoes, people are encouraged to avoid being outside at dawn and dusk, when mosquitoes are most active.

Causes

Of the many different viruses that can cause meningoencephalitis, enteroviruses (particularly coxsackievirus and echovirus) are the most common cause in the United States, particularly if the illness occurs in the summer or fall. Other viruses that can cause encephalitis include several related viruses: varicella-zoster virus (the cause of chickenpox and shingles), cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (the most common cause of infectious mononucleosis) and human herpesvirus-6 (a cause of transient encephalitis in very young children). What's going to cause this to spread like wildfire is when someone who works in the food service industry, specifically food prep, goes to work sick one day.

Symptoms develop 3-10 days after the bite of an infected mosquito and begin with a sudden onset of fever, general muscle pains, and a headache of increasing severity. who are bitten by infected mosquitoes abort the infection in the early stages and recover with no evidence that they ever had the disease. Becoming infected with Japanese encephalitis is much more dangerous to your health than receiving this vaccine.

Infection or inflammation in the brain can lead to permanent damage. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral infection that affects parts of the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord. It is the leading cause of viral neurological disease and disability in Asia, and it is especially prevalent among children. Symptoms of LACV infection can occur from a few days to a couple of weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito.

Other viruses that cause encephalitis are transmitted directly or indirectly from animals to humans. Arboviruses that can infect horses are called equine viruses, such as Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE or triple E). Mosquitoes spread viruses responsible for equine encephalitis (eastern and western types), St. Louis encephalitis, California encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis.

Vaccines

Vaccines may be harmful to an unborn baby and generally should not be given to a pregnant woman. Vaccines are available against some viruses, including polio, herpes B, Japanese encephalitis, and equine encephalitis.

In the United States, EEE is most common east of the Mississippi River (eg, in Michigan, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, and Georgia). The most common insect-borne encephalitis in the U. is St. Louis encephalitis. Enteroviruses are very common viruses, causing 10 million to 15 million infections each year.

In the vast majority of cases, encephalitis is caused by a virus, though it can also sometimes be a bacterial infection. Severe cases of EEE infection begin with the sudden onset of headache, high fever, chills, and vomiting. Severe cases may result in death or neurologic sequelae; however, recovery is usually complete.

Inflammation; Pain, redness, swelling, and heat that develop in response to tissue irritation or injury. Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain that occurs when a virus directly infects the brain or when a virus, vaccine, or something else triggers inflammation. Encephalitis literally means an inflammation of the brain. In most cases, this inflammation is caused by a virus.

Mosquito-borne viruses may be avoided by preventing mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are trapped every week statewide by DEM staff and tested at the HEALTH Laboratory. Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water.

Symptoms of EV-D68 can include fever, cough, new onset wheezing, difficulty breathing and racing heart rate. Symptoms of encephalitis may include fever, headache, seizures, extreme tiredness, or light sensitivity. Symptoms of tick-borne encephalitis usually appear about one week after tick bite, but on rare occasions can be delayed by as much as a month.

Japanese encephalitis is a serious infection caused by a virus present in many parts of Asia. One of the most serious forms of encephalitis is caused by the herpes simplex virus. Measles can cause serious complications such as pneumonia and encephalitis (swelling of the brain) in 20 percent of patients, especially children under 5 and adults older than 20.

Vaccines are available against some viruses, including polio, herpes B, Japanese encephalitis, and equine encephalitis. The efforts to develop a vaccine against CAEV have been weakly successful at best. A high antibody response to killed CAEV virus was induced in goats in one investigation during the 1990s, but the antibodies did not protect against arthritis. Prevention is the best way to control outbreaks.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION: In an outbreak, it is hypothesized that the first patient becomes infected as a result of contact with an infected animal. Changes in the macro- and microclimate may influence transmission of Lyme disease and TBE through impact on the life cycle dynamics of the tick, the tick habitat, and the host animals, as well as through changes in human behavior and human-vector-host animal interactions (Cederlund 1981, Dobson and Carper 1993, Jaenson et al. Precipitation is of indirect interest for pathogen transmission, through impact on the habitat and on tick activity and survival (Kn├╝lle and Rudolph 1983, Daniel 1993, Lindsay et al.However, many cases of encephalitis result in only mild flu-like symptoms or even no symptoms. The range of tick-borne encephalitis spans from Western Europe to East Asia.

Plasmapheresis is a treatment where the blood is "cleansed" of the antibodies causing the problem and returned to the patient. In 2010 and 2011 blood was collected from deer and moose during hunting season, and evidence of current or prior infection was found in these species. These condition occurs if a blood vessel that surrounding the brain turns into dilated. The inflamed arterial blood vessel results in headache and nausea and will continue growing to a balloon's size and finally burst, leading to coma or even death.

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    • Dan Samuel profile imageAUTHOR

      Gunaprakash 

      4 years ago from Singapore

      That is true.I am a medic and saw this patient who was having encephelitis and she cannot remember anything.So they have sent her back to her own country for treatment.She is only 30.

    • John Dyhouse profile image

      John Dyhouse 

      4 years ago from UK

      Nearly three years ago my son was suddenly taken ill (fitting) without any prior indicative symptoms and was rushed to hospital where he was ultimately diagnosed with viral encephelitis. No specific cause was ever identified. he was treated with a whole battery of antivral and antibiotic medicines. He was even put on a course of drugs for TB, as a safety precaution.

      After several days in an induced come he managed to pull through, We have been involved with charitable groups helping patients with induced brian injuries caused by this disease. Recovery is not as simple an issue as you seem to be suggesting after this illness.

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