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Facts about Antipernicious Anemia Factor

Updated on January 10, 2013

Throughout the years scientists have been attempting to find ways to deter moments of confusion during the aging process. There have been methods of meditation and medical experiments that involve placebos. Included in this piece are the uses of vitamins and natural herbs. The featured products are vitamin B and the herb called Ginkgo Biloba. Those two products have been affective in adjusting the amount of the antipernicious anemia factor which is applied to the body through pills, injections, patched, nasal sprays, and liquids. In relation, there are findings which will assist medical investigators and consumers in making knowledgeable decisions that will provide an opportunity to enhance memory and other cognitive properties involved in daily living.

The Different Varieties of the Antipernicious Anemia Factor

The deterrent was first discovered in 1835, originating from whole liver. A fighter of pernicious anemia factor was found in an isolates red crystalline compound and was thereafter claimed as vitamin B12. This discovery was and still is a very important milestone in the biochemistry sciences. If left untreated, pernicious anemia (an autoimmune disease) will destroy the parietal cells in the stomach (those cells are known to secrete the intrinsic factor of digestion) and cause a fatality within a few years.

Crohn’s disease

Celiac disease

• Autoimmune disorder of the small intestine.

• Symptoms:

o Diarrhea

o Fatigue

o Failure to thrive (in children)

• Interferes with the absorption of nutrients (negatively affecting the intestinal villi).

• Caused by a reaction to wheat proteins: Treated by a lifelong gluten-free diet.

Those are commonly known reasons for poor absorption. Other unique detrimental factors of poor stomach absorption also include abnormal growth of bacteria in the stomach; adverse side effects of prolong usage of certain drugs; including drugs that manager ulcers and heartburn, even prior surgery on the intestines or stomach can negatively affect the amount of time it takes for the stomach walls to absorb vitamin B into the body. This shows that the body’s mental cognitive attributes can easily be affected by the consumption level of certain foods and the much needed vitamins supplied to the body.

Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is a very essential vitamin that heavily supports and assists to maintain the nervous system (required in trace amounts; approx. 1 µg/day along with two enzymes, methionine synthase and ®-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase). In fact, vitamin B is responsible for creating new red blood cells and producing DNA. Vitamin B-12 is mainly found in meat, dairy products and seafood. Additionally, vitamin B12 is added to breakfast cereals and energy bars. Originally, vitamin B-12 was identified as the antipernicious anemia factor.

Moreover, the prediction of shortcomings is important, in reference to biochemistry, physiology and anatomy. The body has many functions of responsibility and the causes of bodily malfunctions must continue to occur. However, most related experiments and studies pertain to the correlation of vitamin B12 and the actions of certain cognitive attribute that it carries. Conversely, the amount of vitamin B12 consumption, within a specified time-frame, is a valid factor that continues to show its presence during the experiments entailed within this article.

In comparison to herbal supplements, vitamin B12 continues to be a prime necessity of healthy living. Additionally, this vitamin is not found to be produce within the body's natural internal functions. This type of vitamin continues to be claimed as originated from an outside entity of survival; meaning it must come from another resource like animals and then stored within the body inside of the human liver. In relation, the importance of having a health, well-functioning digestive system is imperative for healthy cognitive responses from the body. This, in turn, will affect the emotions and the reactions of the most important human nervous system. Hence, for human survival; due to the amount of instant reactions and responses needed, in order to trigger time-sensitive processes to begin, subside, and finalize certain phases of defense for the human mind (mental health) and body, as a whole.

Vitamin B and Cognitive Decline

Vitamin B-12 Depletion:

· Neuro-inflammatory oxidative stress (component of dementia that lead to neurotransmitter deficits: tau protein hyperphosphorylation and amyloid deposition).

· May result in the same vascular dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as noticed in Alzeimer’s disease (AD) patients.

Surprisingly, the deficiency of vitamin B-12 is considered a rare condition; affecting 1:1,000 Americans ().

Examples of Studies Set Forth

Before beginning on the briefing of cover stories for the following studies on vitamin B12, it should be understood that the deficiency in vitamin B12 contributes to the theory that homosysteine is a major contributor by converting into amino acid. Therefore, by vitamin B12 converting this homosysteine compound into that acquired state, vitamin B12 is found to be a main component of proper and efficient digestion; by encouraging the production of the stomach acids needed in order to break ingested foods down properly, thus providing necessary enhancements of the human nervous system.

Articles on the Studies

According to studies, there are therapeutic effects of vitamin B12.First off, a coenzyme form of vitamin B12 is called methylcobalamin. This is a cofactor of the enzyme methoionine synthase and it transfers methyl groups for the regeneration of methionine, which comes from homocysteine. Moreover, methylcobalamin has been proven to dramatically increase recovery times in reference to facial nerve function in Bell’s palsy.

Another study indicates that methylcobalamin inhibits the proliferation of malignant cells; which relates to cancer. Additionally, methylcobalamin enhances the efficacy of methotrexate. Conversely, this same methylcobalamin has been shown to increase the survival of leukemic mice. Methylcobalamin, when administered on a regular basis, will protect cultured retinal neurons against N-methyl-D-aspartate-recepetor-mediate glutamate neurotoxicity.

In relation, according to The Guardian, large doses of B-vitamins slow the cognitive decline (of older people). This site even claims that vitamin-B deficiency is the precursor to dementias like Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, Celeste de Jager, a neuropsychologist at Oxford University states the vitamins B6, B12 and folic acid will reduce the overall shrinkage of a human’s brain by 30%; the information was provided during a two-year study. In the near future she is planning another study (extended study) that will involve over 1,000 participants; covering cognitive and clinical outcomes (cognitive decline) instead of her main cover story on brain atrophy.

Vitamin B12 has been studied and also has proven to provide gateways towards enhancing the antiperniciious anemia factor, in addition to allocating attributes that are made readily available to the compound homosysteine. This known compound is affectively used by the human digestive system to assist in developing the much needed amino acids (proteins) of the human body. These same proteins are the protectors of the actual nerves of the nervous systems, by contributing to the formation of myelin and other assets of the biological aspects of a healthy nervous system: neurotransmitters and the phospholipids that create the membranes of the nerve cells. However, if homosysteine accumulates in nerve cells, this compound could adversely kill nerve cells. That, in itself, is an important reason why vitamin B12 should be readily available for the most sensitive nervous system. Lastly, in reference to homosysteine, a major accumulation of this compound will increase the chances of a cardiovascular disease or stroke.

Further studies on Vitamin B

Another vital ingredient in many memory enhancing pills today is Vitamin B12. The use of vitamin B12 as a supplement to prevent the promulgation of memory loss has been one of the foremost reason why this vitamin has been placed as the main ingredients in many memory enhancing pills.

In a study published in the Journal Neurology, stated that senior citizens with vitamin B12 deficiency have lower brain volumes and have memory problems compared to the same age bracket but have not deficiencies on the said vitamin.

Also a study conducted at the Rush University Medical Center, located in Chicago measured homocysteine levels and vitamin B12 levels on older people. They also measured the total brain volume of people that have both homocysteine levels and B12. The results showed that 4 out of 5 that have vitamin B12 deficiency have poor cognitive performance and poor memory. The study was supervised by Christine Tangney Ph.D. Also the study conclusively showed lower brain volumes with persons that have significant Vitamin B12 deficiencies. It has been concluded that there is an association between normal cognition and brain function with adequate levels of Vitamin B, especially B12.

An independent study also found that patients with regular intake of supplements of Folate, Vitamin B6 and B12 dramatically slowed Brain deterioration and prevented impairment of cognition. The research concluded that the loss of B12 may either reduce the brain volume directly or causes the buildups of homocysteine, which can damage the brain thus cause the loss of volume. In another study also, homocysteine is also linked with certain forms of heart diseases.

Gingko and its effect in combating memory loss

Gingko Biloba is one of the most famous herbs used in alternative medicine today. It is one of the oldest species of tress still in existence and it has a long history of medical use, especially by Chinese and Indian medicinal practices. This is an herb in wide use especially in the United States and Europe where it has become one of the main ingredients in many supplements currently in distribution.

Description of Gingko Biloba

Gingko Biloba is a tree that grows to an approximate height of 120 feet and it is mostly found at tropical countries. The leaves of the tree is mostly used for medicinal purposes as may traditional herbalists claim that Gingko biloba leaves helps people retain vital functions of the brain and helps restore full cognitive function even well into old age. Traditional Chinese medicine claims the Gingko biloba leaves can effectively help the proper blood circulation in the body. This is important, as they claim, to the maintenance of major bodily functions, especially with the brain. They argue that memory loss is a form of degeneration and through proper circulation of blood, will help the brain regenerate and halt further deterioration.

For centuries, the use of Gingko for medicinal purposes has been a consistent and its memory enhancing claim much accepted by medicinal practitioners and patients alike. Because of the widespread use and claims of this traditional herb, many scientists have started their research on the effectiveness of Gingko and if the claims associated to it by many traditional herbalists and alternative medicine experts are true. Many studies have been made however, there is still no definitive results, but hints of its effectiviness can be seen.

Medical research on Gingko Biloba

A study was conducted in 2001 and was published in the international Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology in the same year. They have stated that an experiment on the effects of Gingko biloba was carried through with the help of 61 patient-volunteers that were given alternate doses of Gingko biloba extract and a mild placebo. For thirty days the patients were instructed to take these doses, without knowing that the other batch was a placebo. After the thirty-day experiment, statistics shows that when people are given real Gingko biloba extracts, they saw a statistical increase in memory enhancement and improved cognitive response. This was one of the many primary research made on Gingko that seemingly shows its effectiveness in enhance memory and improving it in people.

After the 2001, another independent research team published a report about their findings on Gingko biloba. A group of polish researchers in the Polish Academiy of Sciences, Institute of medicine initiated a lab study on rats and how Gingko biloba increase the brain functions of the said animal. Rats are then given regular doses of Gingko extract and saw increased positive result on basic brain functions and also show stress-relieving properties. However, though this shows a conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of Gingko extract to rats, it only hits the tip of the ice berg on human research.

Many researchers, especially Gingko advocates believe that there are chemicals present in the said extract that helps in creating strong memory for people and help patients of debilitating diseases that affect memory such as Alzheimer’s to retain is normal function. The main chemicals researchers are interested on are Flavonoids and Terpenoids. These two chemicals are said to be responsible for eliminating free radicals in the brain which they say is the main cause of brain deterioration and memory loss. They say the given adequate amounts are present in the body, Flavonoids and Terpenoids can effectively induce regeneration and enhancement of brain function thus increasing memory and cognitive responses of an individual.

In 2002, the Yank medical association journal released a study that contests the effectiveness of Gingko extract in enhancing memory and cognitive functions of the brain. They were helped by 230 volunteers by undergoing a 6 week study where they were split into two groups and given Gingko extract and placebos without their knowledge. After the said experiment, their findings show inconclusive results.

The group that was under Gingko extract use did not show any remarkable advantage over those who only got placebo for the whole duration of the experiment. Though the study was inconclusive, it attests to the anti-oxidative properties of Gingko. This gives hint on the claims that Gingko can help in removing free radicals in the body and thus help in memory enhancing, especially if free radicals are eliminated from the brain. They say that as the brain deteriorates as one gets old, anti-oxidants can hamper the sudden destruction of brain cells. This will result in an increased memory for people, even if they are well into old age, though further studies are still to be made in order to fully comprehend the anti-oxidative properties of the Gingko extract.

In 2004, Materiamedica, a famous medical journal, published the same results made by the Yank medical association. They state the seemingly ineffectiveness of Gingko and its failure of providing considerable memory enhancing advantage over placebos. Though this clear refutes any claim of memory enhancing, but it does not disprove the anti-oxidative properties of Gingko and how it can be of help in reducing deteriorative oxidation of the body.

A final study on Gingko was made through the GEM study which was participated by more than 3000 old-age volunteers all over 70 years of age. This group of elderly volunteers were given constant doses of Gingko and Placebo alternately, without their knowledge and was regularly checked for any psychological improvements. Regular checks were made in order to measure the effects when Gingko was used and when Placebo are given. This massive study lasted for more than six whole years and its result were outstanding.

The GEM study effectively shows that Gingko extract provide results in improving memory. However, many say that it only shows a placebo effect as the results were also the same with placebo. Yet, many are convinced that Gingko can indeed help people enhance their memory especially in elderly people where memory deterioration is widely experienced. After this study, the National center for complementary and alternative study (NCCAM), which sponsored the said experiment, published the results on the association’s medical journal. This rallied Gingko supporters to believe on the effectiveness of the said extract, while opponents on the Gingko was also elated by this study which shows the placebo-like effect of Ginkgo rather than a precise and controlled medical result. However, the GEM study did not disprove the anti-oxidative property of Ginkgo which is still one of the major reasons why medical experts believe on the memory enhancing properties of Gingko biloba.

Even with this extensive studies made by supporters and skeptics on the efficacy of Gingko biloba in enhancing memory, many are still convinced that Gingko has its special property which is still not clearly understood. Many will attest to the effective results it brings and how many people have regained their cognitive responses and enhanced memory just by regular intake of the said herb. For thousands of years, this herb has been one of the mainstay in many alternative medicine recipes and this is certainly has its reasons. Though such definitive results on the effects of Gingko is still elusive, many will still prefer its use and will highly recommend it to others.

Memory loss due to brain deterioration is one of the most dreaded diseases of our time. Alzheimer’s disease is one of those conditions that clearly results in the deterioration of brain functions, memory loss and loss of cognitive response of the brain. This is why many are finding desperate measures on how to effectively elimitate this dreaded deteriorative process of the brain as people gets older. Gingko biloba has been used by millions of people worldwide and many will attest whole-heartedly on its effect. Many will still retain its use, even though studies like the GEM will tell anyone that it has no special qualities, however for people that experienced the positive effects first hand will clearly brush aside this results and continue with their use of Gingko Biloba in order to maintain their healthy way of life.


Memory is one of the most important aspects in human existence. The ability to retain memories defines us the most and helps us maintain our individuality, personality and emotion. It is hard to imagine how one can cope with memory loss, especially in cases such as with alzheimer’s diseases and other brain dysfunctions that destroys the brain’s ability to retain memories.

There are many methods today that make use of supplements and various herbal treatments to help people cope with this debilitating and depressive brain dysfunction. However, it is important to always consider maintaining a healthy lifestyle in order to lessen the deteriorative effects of diseases that affect the memory. It is important to consider that through effective lifestyle checks, one can limit the intake of deteriorative agents in the body such as free radicals and other toxic compounds than can effectively destroy droves of cells in the body.

Through the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, in tandem with various supplements and alternative medicine one can effectively maintain a healthy life, filled with memories that make you what you are.


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