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When Does Ovulation Occur
What is ovulation?
Ovulation is the shading of ovum from the ovary. it occurs when the follicle matures, its primary oocyte undergoes oogenesis thereby giving rise to a secondary oocyte and first polar body, therefore ovulation can also said to be the release of a secondary oocyte and a first polar body from the ovary.
Each month at the end of proliferative phase (usually from the 5th-14th day) which is the 14th day, the matured follicle ruptures releasing the follicular fluid and secondary oocyte (ovum) in the ovary, which then enters the fallopian tube.
FATE OF THE OVUM (Egg Cells)
The ovum that is shed from the ovary is closely embraced and carried into the uterine or fallopian tube by the follicular fluid being released alongside the ovum. If sexual intercourse occurs at this time, the sperm deposited into the vagina swims into the uterus and then into the uterine tube, as it meets the ovum one out of millions spermatozoa pierces the zonal pellucida of the ovum and fertilizes it. The fertilized ovum develop into an embryo then the embryo travels to the uterus and are implanted in its wall. On the other hand, if the ovum is not fertilized, it breaks apart and expelled during menstruation.
NOTE: after ovulation, the ovum is viable for not more than two days therefore fertilization can occur only if sexual intercourse takes place during a period between 4 days before ovulation and 2 days after ovulation. The rest days are regarded as safe period.
HOW TO CALCULATE AND KNOW THE DAY OF YOUR OVULATION (FERTILE DAYS)
Most women who want to get pregnant need to know the most fertile day in order to increase their chance of getting pregnant. A woman has a chance of becoming pregnant only during eight days of her monthly cycle.
to calculate your ovulation day, you write down the first day of your last menstrual cycle then count 10 days and starting with the 10th day draw a line under the next 8th days. During these 8 days, you are most likely to get pregnant if sexual intercourse occur.
Example 1: supposing your menstruation begins on the 10th of may then that day becomes days 1, circle it as shown in the calendar below then count out 10 days and starting on the 10th day draw a line on the next 8 days.
Example 2: suppose the next period starts on June 6, do it the same ways as the one in example one.
The underlined days are your fertile days and it improves the chance of getting pregnant. This method works for women whose period come regularly every 28 days. This method is also used for birth control, a woman who wants to prevent pregnancy need not to have sexual intercourse during the 8 fertile days although it is not a very sure method of preventing pregnancy unless used in combination with mucus method or with condom.
A woman, whose period is irregular i.e. every 21 to 35 days, can also calculate her fertile day by using mucus method or basal body temperature.
BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE (BBT)
In this method, a woman records her body temperature every morning. The temperature is low during the actual menstruation, which subsequently rises at about the middle of the cycle. There is a sudden fall in temperature followed by a rise; this rise is believe to indicate that ovulation has occur. If you are seeking for a baby, it is advisable to have sex two days prior to ovulation just before the temperature rises as it takes time for sperm to get to the egg.
Charting basal body temperature
A woman finds out when she could get pregnant by noting the mucus in her vagina every day except during her period. With a clean finger take a little mucus out of your vagina, and then try making a stretch between your thumb and forefinger. When the mucus becomes sticky like paste, it means it is not your fertile day and you cannot get pregnant, but if the mucus is slippery like raw egg and stretches between your finger then it's your fertile day and therefore you can get pregnant if you engage in sexual intercourse. This method can also be used to prevent pregnancy, if this is your case then when your mucus begins to stretch or becomes slippery you should not have sexual relation and until 4days days after it has stopped being slippery and has become sticky again. Fertile discharge is always clear and thin and consistency of egg white.
OTHER METHOD OF BIRTH CONTROL
There are several methods of preventing pregnancy, these method includes
(1) Abstinence: In this case, you are advised to stay away or abstain from sexual relation until you are ready to have children.
(2) Barrier method: in this method, to prevent pregnancy your man needs to wear a condom on his penis or you as a woman can wear a diaphragm on your vagina while having sex so that it covers the cervix preventing sperm cell from entering the uterus. It should be left in for at least 6hrs after sexual intercourse.
Also a chemical barrier contraceptive such as cream, foams, and jellies with spermicidal properties. This chemical creates an unfavorable condition for the sperm cell in the vagina. Chemical barrier are mostly effective when combined with condom or diaphragm.
(3) Coitus interruptus (withdrawal or pulling out): Your man pulls out his penis from your vagina before ejaculation occurs in this method. this method may still result in pregnancy if the man finds it difficult to withdraw before ejaculation and also a small amount of semen may have reach the vagina before ejaculation occur.
(4) Intrauterine device (IUD): This plastic is placed inside the womb to prevent pregnancy. This device interfere with implantation of a blastocyst, perhaps by inflaming the uterine tissue.
(5) Emergency contraception: in emergency contraception, after you must have had unprotected sex some pills can be taken within 72 hours to prevent pregnancy. Example is postinor2 tablet, the tablet should be taken immediately after unprotected sex, and the second tablet should be taken 12hrs (and no later than 16hrs) after the first tablet.
I DONT WANT TO HAVE MORE CHILDREN
- If you do not want to have more children as a woman and you have not reached menopause, there is a safe sterilize simple operation for you. It is called tubal ligation, which means to tie the tubes. In this operation, a small cut made in the lower abdomen and the fallopian tubes are cut and tied so that sperm cells cannot reach egg cells. Tubal ligation does not change a woman's menstrual cycle or sexual ability, although you may feel more relaxed as you will not have to about becoming pregnant.
The corresponding procedure in the male is called vasectomy where a small section of each vas deferens near the epididymis is removed or cut and tied. After vasectomy, sperm cannot leave the epididymis. This operation is a simple one as it can be done in a doctor’s office.
- Injectable contraception: In this case, an intramuscular injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate is used to prevent pregnancy for 3 months by preventing the maturation, rupture, and release of a secondary oocyte. It also alter the uterine lining by making it less hospitable for a blastocyst.
Use of medroxyprogesterone acetate requires a doctor’s care because potential side effects makes it risky for woman with certain medical condition.