- First Aid
How to handle and treat some common injuries?
First Aid Kit
A good First Aid Kit should be checked and restocked periodically and should always contain the following items:
Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes
Sterile gauze pads in assorted sizes
Hypoallergenic adhesive tape
Splints in assorted sizes
Assorted sizes of safety pins
Latex gloves and face mask
Aspirin and/or ibuprofen
We all take certain measures to prevent accidents but sometimes despite our best efforts, accident will happen. When an accident happens, time is not on your side. The common accident on trip or in family, at work, etc... as burns, bleeding wounds, dislocations, sprains ... if you know how first aid can limit the damage, maybe even save the lives of victims.
First aid and some common injuries occurring at home
There are several ways a person can get burned: fire, boiling water, steam, electricity, chemical activity, radiation, etc...
When a person get burn, ones should be very careful and make sure to Asses it carefully and depending on the degree of the burn the right treatment should be applied. Always take some notes of the incident in any big cases of burns. Always remain calm in order to provide the best help to the victims and always protect your self to avoid becoming the next victim as well. Make sure that the scene of the accident is safe and first aid is given to the victim who are in need first, especially when the cause is due to chemical burns, radiation and fire. A triage of the victim should be done first to asses the one who needs attention first.
Victim whose not breathing, spinal injury or bleeding should be the first one to be treated.
Wounds need to be treated quickly and gently to avoid pain to the victim. While treating a burned victim need to make sure to asses the cause of the burn in order to apply the right treatment.
For example, thermal burns are the most common type, accounting for 60 to 75% of all burns are caused by fire, boiling water, exposed to hot objects and metals...
The First aid should be as follow:
Step 1: Remove the cause of the burn as soon as possible, such as fire extinguishers, remove their clothing which is on fire. Separate the victim from any of hot objects.
Step 2: Using cool water to cool the burned area is will only work for about 30 minutes after cached a burn, so it is imperative to act quickly and soaked their body's burned areas in cool water. This measure is simple but very important in the initial first aid steps of a burn. If the body cannot soak in cool water, you can pour water on the burned areas to cool it down. You can also apply cool towels to cover the burned areas for about 15 to 20 minutes. If thing happens in the winter you will need to keep the body warm.
Step 3: Take the victim to a hospital facility as soon as possible.
Note: The skin will continue to burn for a certain amount of time after the burn and can cause it to get worse. That is why it is important to try to keep it cool as soon as possible until seeing by a doctor. Retain heat to the injury becomes more severe. So important principle in the treatment of burns is to cool the burned area immediately.
Do not use too cold water or ice on the burned areas, do not hurt the burn blisters because of the risk of infection which might have in the future, do not apply creams or mucus, oils... on the burn. Unfortunately if the burn is on the eyes, do not rub the eyes. Do not attempt to remove any objects from the burn wounds.
To prevent burns injuries in the family:
Make sure to Label potential items properly in the house, kitchen and bathroom, such as adhesives iron, laundry bleach, irons, gasoline, oil, thermos, even hot soup, hot rice etc. socket set in a dry, high and safety etc. Set remove anything that you feel unsafely to avoid risk of fire, explosion, electrocution ... Learn how to store daily chemicals such as: detergents solvents, industrial chemicals, especially out of the reach of children and do not let children play with appliances that could potentially cause major burns.
III. Sprains, Dislocations:
Accidents at work, living, traffic, sports ... parts injured signs such as pain, difficulty moving, swelling, edema, bruising, deformity.
A. The step-aid for sprain as follows:
- Restrict movement the sprained areas
- Tape, pressing lightly sprained areas.
- Combine ice at where the lesion is.
- After tape, need to ask the victim if he/she feel numb the extremities or not to adjust or opening the tape to let them feel better and more comfortable. If the victim lost their feeling temporary then we need to observe the extremities there to see if they are pale or not to adjust the tape better
- Try to move right after less pain. Severe cases will need to see doctor
B. For accident dislocated
- No movement joints dislocated.
- Iced the damaged areas
- Fixed joint posture in which the joints are in a position bias.
- Dislocations in the hand can be fixed by the steering stick to the body, using the body as a pole.
- Find things to support fixed to the hand.
- Take victim to hospital
C. Important: Do not massage with hot oil and do not try Chiropractic.
II. Bleeding wound:
Often caused by occupational accidents, traffic accidents, accidents in daily life, sharp objects pierced into the skin, soft tissue or bone is broken crashing tear off to the skin or the broken blood vessels, stamping broken limbs ...
Body signs: sweating, chills, pale skin. Excess bleeding from a wound, can cause a person go into shock, become unconscious and possible death.
A. If you experience bleeding wounds without foreign bodies, we provide first aid steps are as follows:
- Wear rubber gloves, plastic wrap or replace items (to avoid spreading infections from patient, if any).
- Using gauze, clean cloth, pressing directly on the wound and hold to stop the bleeding.
- Tape directly at the wound.
- Keep the legs high, kept warm to prevent shock.
- Adjust victims head lower to reduce blood flow to the wound.
- Check after the tape.
- If the blood still seepage through the tape then continue to tape it over again and again overlap with other layers.
B. For the bleeding wound with a foreign object, shall be handled according to the following guidelines:
- No withdrawal of foreign bodies.
- Wear gloves.
- Press tightly the edges of wound.
- Insert the tape, gauze and tape around and fixed a foreign bodies (not covered tape if there are any of foreign object).
- Quickly move the victim to the nearest medical facility.
C. With crushed wounds, broken ribs, etc, the first aid should be as follows:
- Garo bleeding (tightly wrapped) avoid to the wound 3-5 cm.
- Twist garo slowly until the blood flowed out.
- Set the head of the victims low, and the legs are high.
- Warm incubates the victim.
- Record garo hours clear. Each 15 minutes need to loosen the garo a few seconds.
- Send the victims to the hospital (Let the victim lying down, should not be transported on a bicycle or motorcycle).