ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

How A Nucleus Builds a Protein

Updated on May 19, 2012

The Complex Process of Creating Proteins

The process of creating a protein can be quite a bit confusing, so I've dedicated a short article entirely to this process. For more information about cell structure, feel free to visit my cell structure article. For more information on active transport inside of a cell, follow the link provided.

  1. Think of building a protein the same way you would build a house. A contractor creates a set of plans. Those plans are placed into a blueprint. The blueprint is taken to the location of the house being built. Workers bring the materials to the site, then assemble them according to the blueprints, finally creating the final product. This will all come together momentarily.
  2. The DNA that creates the protein (plans) is located in the nucleus (The contractor).
  3. A copy of DNA is made in the nucleus. This copy is called "messenger RNA" or mRNA. This is the blueprint.
  4. The mRNA leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pores and goes to the endoplasmic reticulum (building site).
  5. Ribosomes attach to the mRNA and move along the mRNA strand.
  6. Sets of RNA molecules called "transfer RNA" or tRNA (the workers) bring specific amino acids (building materials) to the ribosomes.
  7. The tRNA molecules assemble the protein (The house) according the the mRNA blueprint.

Other terms to Know

Transcription - The copying process that is done in the nucleus. Here is the process.

  • An enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA at a sequence called a promoter. Think of RNA polymerase as a sprinter, who goes to the starting line of a race. The starting line is the promoter.
  • RNA polymerase will travel along the DNA strand, making a copy of the DNA as it goes.
  • The enzyme will then reach "the terminator," or the finish line, and will stop copying the DNA.


Translation is the process of assembling a protein, and here is how it is done:

  • tRNA molecules enter the ribosome.
  • Anticodons of the tRNA pair up with the codons in the mRNA.
  • A peptide bond forms between the amino acids.
  • The now empty tRNA leaves, and a new one enters. The process is repeated until the protein is assembled.
  • Upon completion, a sequence called a stop codon will be reached. The ribosome falls apart an releases a brand new protein.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Joan Whetzel 

      7 years ago

      This is great. You really took some comples material and made it easy to understand.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)