How to Treatment of Rehabilitation of the Burn Patient?
Treatment of the Burn Patient.
Skin Burn Patient
After Burn Cream
Rehabilitation of Burns
Introduction: Humans have used fire since the of history and burn injuries have presumably occurred ever since. Burns affect skin directly and all the other organ system indirectly, causing a chain of events with implications far beyond skin loss.
First-degree burns: Shows up as an erythematous white plaque involving only the epidermis. In India, due to the severe heat in summer, people get sunburns and this can be included as first degree burns.
Second-degree burn: Occur when there is blistering of the skin, involving mostly the superficial dermis and may also involve the deeper dermal layer it is a second degree burn.
Third-degree burns: This happens when the epidermis a lost with damage to the subcutaneous tissue there is charring with severe pain and even loss of hair. Grafting may be needed for these burns.
Fourth-degree burns: These burns damage deeper tissues like muscles, tendons, and ligaments, thus resulting in charring and later even contractual These burns are usually fatal if not attended to immediately. Grafting and rehabilitation are required intensively.
Causes of Burns
Heat: Including fire, radiation, or from steam, and hot liquids (scalds) and contact with hot object. Household burns are very common, where contact with cooking utensils is unavoidable. A very unfortunate cause of burns is suicide, by dousing with kerosene and lighting with a much. The victim is often depressed or, as is common in anywhere place, uses this as a means of expressing solidarity with a cause or political protest. The rehab program is very tortuous and painful and several counselling sessions are needed.
Radiation: This is a rare but catastrophical cause of burns. Recent example is the disaster from the Chernobyl reactor. Ultraviolet light is also a source of radiation burns.
Light: Burns caused by intense light sources. In the tropics, sunlight is also included.
Electrical: Common household and industrial sources of electricity are potential risk for electrical burn. It is also an occupational hazard for electricians and is a cause for bilateral amputation. Lightning is another cause, through rare.
Complications of Burns
1- Bachterial contamination of the wound may occur even within a few hours. Burns are ofte fatal due to contamination leading to sepsis.
2- There is tremendous loss of body fluids through open wounds that can cause hypovolemia and shock; this is a major danger and could prove fatal.
3- The body’s immunity is compromised.
4- The evaporation from open wounds results in heat loss.
5- Upper airway obstruction and lung infections occur.
6- Acute gastric dilatation and paralytic.
TREATMENT FOR BURNS ON SKIN
Management in the Acute Phase
Face and scalp
A contracture is a serious complication of a burn. It happens because elastic connective tissues are replaced with inelastic fibrous tissues. It presents as a permanent tightening of skin and underlying tissues resistant to stretching and preventing normal movement of the affected area. It occurs when the burn scar heals with fibrosis, thickens, and tightens (which is normal in wound healing), reducing the range of movement. Sometime there is hypertrophy of the scars producing keloids. During the healing stage, pressure dressings to burns wounds are generally advised to minimize hypertrophic scarring. Surgical excision and skin grafting may be done within three day’s after the burn, for no scald and full thickness burns in children and young adults. For older patients in the same category, it is better to wait before taking a decision for grafting. Hypertrophic scarring is more common when epithelialisation takes longer than 2 weeks in children or three weeks in other. The burn wound may taken up to a year to heal during which antiseptic, moisturizing cream and sun protected cream are used along with splints. Release of contractures, has to be decided based on the assessment of the surgeon and function planned.
- To promote wound healing and prevent infection.
- To control edema, lung infection, and electrolyte imbalance.
- To maintain joint and skin mobility, with minimal disfigurement.