ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

INFECTIVE CONJUNCTIVITIS

Updated on October 10, 2013

WHAT IS INFECTIVE CONJUNCTIVITIS ?

Infective conjunctivitis is a condition in which the conjunctival sac is infected with pathogenic organism.

Acute catarrhal or acute muco-purulent conjunctivitis is the commonest cause for the "RED EYE".


ETIOLOGY :


It can occur at any age..

  1. There is no preference for any particular sex.
  2. It may occur in association with eruptive fevers like Measles.
  3. It is highly contagious and bad hygienic conditions and dirty habits help the infection to establish.
  4. Any organisms which affects the mucus membrane anywhere in the body, can also invade the conjunctiva.

PATHOLOGY:

The conjunctival discharge consists of:

  1. Tears.
  2. Mucus.
  3. Epithelial cells.
  4. Bacteria.
  5. Leucocytes.
  6. Fibrin.

If the inflammation is very severe particularly in children, diapedisis of red blood cells (R.B.C) may occur and the discharge becomes blood stained.

In mild cases the infection is overcome and the condition is cured within 10 to 15 days; otherwise it may go to the chronic stage.

If inflammation continues for sometime, new vessels are formed particularly in the tarsal conjunctiva in the form of minute tufts of capillaries which run perpendicularly to the plane of the superficial vessels.

SYMPTOMS:

  1. Discomfort in eye and foreign body sensation due to engorgement of blood vessels.
  2. Photo-phobia or difficulty to tolerate light, and watering of the eye.
  3. Mistiness of vision, due to thin layer of discharge on mucus of the cornea.
  4. Sticking together of the lid margins during sleep due to the discharge.
  5. Rainbow halo around the light due to the thin layer of discharge on the corneal surface which brakes white light into it's component parts.

CLINICAL SIGNS:

  1. Usually it starts in one eye and due to it the other eye is affected.
  2. Conjunctival type of congestion.
  3. Chemosis of the conjunctiva and mild oedema (swelling) of the lids if inflammation is severe.
  4. Petechial sub conjunctival haemorrhage particularly when the causative agent is pneumococcus(bacterial organism).
  5. Muco-purulent discharge seen accumulated on the inner and outer canthus, lower fornix or at the roots of the eye lashes causing matting of the lashes.

CLINICAL CRITERIA OF ACUTE MUCO-PURULENT CONJUNCTIVITIS:

  1. History of sticking together of the eye lids during sleep.
  2. Conjunctival type of congestion.
  3. Presence of muco-purulent discharge.

COMPLICATIONS:

  1. The conditions may pass on to chronic stage.
  2. Marginal corneal ulcer due to interferance of nutrition following oedema of conjunctiva.
  3. Blepharitis, i.e inflammation of the lid margin.
  4. Rarely chronic dacryocystitis.

TREATMENT:

  1. Prophylactic.
  2. Curative .
  1. Prophylactic:

a) Prophylaxis against the good eye, if only one eye is affected, infection of the good eye can be prevented in two ways:

  • By using a Buller's sheild to cover the normal eye.
  • By asking the patient to lie on the affected side, so that discharge from the affected eye may not come into contact with the good eye.

b) Prophylaxis against other members of the family:

  • The personal belongings of the patient like towel, handkerchief, etc, should be kept separate.
  • The patient should be if possible kept isolated.

2. Curative:

a) The conjunctival sac should be washed with warm normal saline three times a day. The wash helps to remove the discharge and the organisms with it. Frequent eye wash is not desirable, as that dilutes the Lysozyme present in the tears, which has a definite antibacterial property . Also 1.4% saline which is isotonic with tears may be used for wash.

b) Mild astringent drops like Lotio argyrol 5% or lotio protargol 5% may be used three times a day. These organic silver preparations destroy the surface epithelial cells which often contain the organisms.

c) Mild chemotherapeutic agents like Sulphacetamide 10% drops three to four times a day.

d) Broad spectrum antibiotic in the form of 1% tetracycline or oxytetracycline ointment at bed time, which exerts a prolonged action and prevents the lids from sticking together.

e) If cornea is involved in the form of a marginal ulcer, atropine sulphate 1% drops twice daily to be used.

f) No pads has to be used as warmth caused by the the pads aggravates the infection. Dark glasses should be used instead.

g) Steroids are Contraindicated.

The ideal treatment is of course to take a conjunctival swab for culture, to isolate the organism and to find it's sensitivity to any antibiotic and then to use that antibiotic.















Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • drdspervez profile imageAUTHOR

      drdspervez 

      7 years ago from Pakistan

      Dr.Amilia thanks a lot for reading and appreciating my article. :)

      DR.DURRESHAHWAR PERVEZ

    • Dr. Amilia profile image

      Dr. Amilia 

      7 years ago

      This is a very accurate description of it. Excellently done, Dr. Durreshahwar Pervez.

    • drdspervez profile imageAUTHOR

      drdspervez 

      8 years ago from Pakistan

      Thanks Dr irum ! for reading my articles and your comments,GOD bless you.

      DR. DURRESHAHWAR PERVEZ

    • Dr irum profile image

      Dr irum 

      8 years ago

      Nice and useful information with detailed treatment options.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)