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Impressions of Others
What Are your Impressions of Others?
Impression information is the process by which observers integrate various sources of information about others' self-presentations.
All of which falls into a unified and consistent judgment.
It is not only a dynamic process; it is also integrative.
Every bit of information, about a person is interpreted within the context of the other information put together about the individual.
Some of the information has more weight, and other will orchestrate all the other bits into a coherent whole. It is not created equally.
Impressions of Others are Shaped by their Non-verbal Behavior.
First impressions are often based on self-presenters' nonverbal behavior which involves communicating feelings, and intentions without words.
Whether, a person smiles when greeted by another, whether a person’s walk is ‘‘bouncy,’’ ‘‘purposeful,'' or whether one's gestures are expansive or constricted can provide important notes in developing a working model of those people you meet in your everyday life.
Two of the more important nonverbal channels of communication are facial expressions, and body movements.
Facial expressions not only play an important role in communication, but that certain emotional expressions are innate and thus are understood throughout the world.
Regardless of which culture the six primary emotions, happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust are expressed thoroughly.
Facial cues the body as a whole and conveys a wealth of information.
People who walk with a good deal of hip away, knee bending, loose joints, and body bounce are perceived to be younger and more powerful than those who walk with less pronounced gaits.
Apart from the information about one's age and strength, attention to body movements can also provide useful clues to a person's level of emotion arousal.
Have you noticed that when people become nervous they often spend a good deal of time touching, scratching or rubbing various parts of their bodies?
People who are emotionally aroused they tend to engage in a greater number of such body movements than they are calm.
In a creative observation of dance characters in a classical ballet it was carefully noticed of the dance character's arms and the body. The threatening characters were diagonal or angular, while the warm characters were rounded.
The diagonal shapes are bad, powerful and active than the rounded shapes these results were drawn to attention after evaluation.
Do People Differ in Using Nonverbal Cues?
People recognize the important role that nonverbal behavior plays in impression formation and often consciously employ nonverbal cues in their self-presentation strategies.
Have you ever forced yourself to smile at someone you really didn't like?
Have you deliberately fixed someone with a cold, angry stare to convey your displeasure or your feeling of social dominance?
However, you tend to use a forced smile over the cold stare it can be associated with your gender socialization.
During childhood, boys are generally discouraged from displaying vulnerable emotions. A common warning given weeping boy is that if such behavior persists he runs the risk of being called a ''sissy.''
Although expression vulnerability is discouraged in boys, anger expression is not only more encouraged in boys than girls. Also, the only emotion that is better communicated non-verbally by men and women.
In contrast happiness expression is the emotion most encouraged in girls.
Consistent with this encouragement, women are not only better nonverbal communicators of happiness than but they are better at making disappointment with a positive expression.
In thinking about your own upbringing are your skills at constructing fixed stares and forced smiles consistent with these gender socialization patterns?
Besides these gender differences one personality trait that identifies individuals who are more motivated to consciously use nonverbal cues in managing their social relationships. That is self-monitoring.
High self-monitors conceal their nonverbal expressions of joy by biting their lips or twisting their mouths to one side.
It is to prevent them from smiling. Those high self-monitors are no to only more attentive to their nonverbal behavior in social settings, but they are also better able to modify or suppress nonverbal gestures that might be considered socially inappropriate.
The less fortunate people, the low self-monitors can't hide their expressions.
Can Women read Nonverbal Cues better than men?
Beyond the gender differences in using specific nonverbal cues, females are significantly more adept than males in decoding nonverbal communication.
Asocial role is a cluster of socially defined expectations that individuals in a given situation are expected to fulfill.
Social roles are defined by society
Applied to all individualism a particular social category
Consist of well-learned responses by individuals
What is Social Role Theory?
The different social roles occupied by women and men lead to differences in the perception of women and men and in their behavior.
In other words understanding this information properly means women and men typically operate in different domains within society.
Women in the home and men in the world of paid employment engage in different patterns of behavior and properly play their roles.
Female social roles require women to be more nurturing, friendly, and sensitive, while male social roles compel men to be more dominant, aggressive, and emotionally non-expressive.
Social roles played by women have a lower status relative to male roles.
What is Additive or Average Model?
Two people have differences this is based on their conversations. Intelligent and humorous. The two personality traits you evaluate very positively. You think one person is practical and modest, and feel positively about it.
Sometimes you can be less favorable of one individual. If you are an Additive Model the extra moderately positive information about the two individuals don't match you favorable about one more than the other.
The Averaging Model the moderately positive information about the intelligent and modest individual is averaged with the extremely positive information. Thus, one's overall impression of the individual is lowered. In assuming the averaging model the less favorable individual is evaluated more positively.
What are Central Traits?
All traits are not created equally and therefore a simple averaging model will sometimes not count for the final overall impression.
Certain traits exerted a disproportionate influence on people's overall impressions, causing them to assume the presence of other traits. These dominant traits are called Central Traits.
The list of discrete traits:
For some people the trait warm is replaced with the trait cold.
A person who is rated as warm hypothetically, that person is thought of as generous, humorous and sociable, also popular, more than those who are cold individuals.
Warm and cold are central traits that significantly influence overall impression information. In a warm and caring individual, industrious and determined would likely carry positive connotations but in a cold and heartless individual the same traits carry very different, and more negative, connotations.
These traits have dramatically affects the meaning of the other characteristics of the person in question. Whether people are considered blunt or polite is much less likely to alter social perceptions of their other traits.
Implicit Personality Theory
People believe of a certain theory for a specific person and make judgment by what they think is correct. The knowledge of individuals are structured by their beliefs about which traits go hand in hand. and the personality judgment one makes often defies the rules of cold logic.
Naive belief systems that you have about others among personality traits are called, Implicit Personality Theory.
First impressions, are often based on self-presenters' nonverbal behavior such as the facial expressions, body movements, and posture. When communicating with other people you often observe their body movements even when with fat people you are curious to see their body movement.
Do people differ in their judgments?
Impressions of You
© 2013 Devika Primić