ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Key Information About Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Updated on June 13, 2019
srirad0675 profile image

Srikanth is passionate about helping people improve their quality of life.

Overview

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that affects both children and adults.

Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) reports that an estimated 129 million children worldwide live with ADHD.

Source

Causes

Heredity is the most common cause of ADHD. One research study found that more than 25% of relatives of families with a child with ADHD also had the condition, a much higher rate than in families without a child with ADHD.

Also, twin studies have demonstrated that there is an 82% chance that identical twins will both have ADHD if at least one of them has the condition, compared to a 38% chance among fraternal twins.

Clinical and epidemiological associations show a consistent association and dose–response relationship between prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (maternal reports and urinary cotinine levels) and offspring ADHD.

Half of the adults who report symptoms of ADHD also report co-existing substance-abuse disorders, including alcoholism.

Prenatal maternal stress is a risk factor for both autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Other factors that may contribute to the development of ADHD include being born prematurely and brain injury.

Source

Symptoms

Inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the core symptoms of ADHD. A person with this condition:

  • makes careless mistakes
  • finds it difficult to pay attention
  • is unable to follow through on instructions
  • finds it difficult to organize tasks
  • loses things
  • performs inappropriate actions
  • is forgetful
  • is unable to play quietly
  • talks excessively.

Researchers from King's College London and the University of Pavia in Italy consulted historical evidence, including accounts from Leonardo da Vinci's contemporaries, and concluded that his issues with time management, concentration and procrastination could be attributed to ADHD.

— CNN
Source

Treatment

Treating ADHD usually requires medical, educational, behavioral and psychological intervention.

This comprehensive approach to treatment is sometimes known as “multimodal”; and, depending on the age of the individual with ADHD, may include:

  • parent training
  • medication
  • skills training
  • counseling
  • behavioral therapy
  • educational supports
  • education regarding ADHD

"For some children with ADHD, if behavioral interventions are not sufficient or if there are significant concerns – maybe safety concerns or (they’re) not able to learn because of such significant ADHD symptoms, the medication could be considered,” said Dr. Elizabeth Harstad, a developmental behavioral pediatrician at Boston Children’s Hospital.

Stimulant drugs (e.g., methylphenidate, amphetamine) are the most commonly prescribed medications for treatment of ADHD.

In the past, ADHD treatment has typically focused on medications. The specific class of medication most commonly prescribed for ADHD is stimulants. These stimulant medications — like Ritalin (methylphenidate) or Adderall (an amphetamine) — are commonly prescribed, well-tolerated, act quickly (usually soon after a person takes them), and in most people, have few side effects.

— James Haggerty, MD

Prevention

Though there is no way to prevent ADHD , there are ways to reduce the risk. Pregnant women should stay healthy throughout their pregnancy.

Healthy diet and regular doctor visits are important; so are avoiding the use of alcohol and drugs.

Medical science has not yet found a way to prevent ADHD. ADHD is one of the most commonly inherited disorders of the human race, transmitted from parent to child genetically, and present in 10-15% of all children. As in most conditions, the symptoms of ADHD range from mild to severe, with the majority of individuals falling in the moderate range.

— Norris S. Payne, MD

5 Common Mental Disorders

 
Depression
Anxiety
Eating disorder
Substance abuse
ADHD

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2019 Srikanth R

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)