Key Information About Rabies
Rabies is a rare, preventable viral disease of the brain and nerves. Most often it is transmitted through the bite or scratch of an infected animal.
Across the globe, 99 percent of human rabies cases result from virus transmission by domestic dogs.
Have you vaccinated your pet against rabies?
More than 59,000 people worldwide die each year of rabies.
Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus, which is spread through the saliva of infected animals.
Infected mammals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a human being. In rare cases, rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound, or the mucous membranes, such as the mouth or eyes.
"An animal with rabies can also transmit the rabies virus through its saliva, which can come in contact with a person’s mucous membranes (mouth, nose, eyes) or can get in open wounds on the skin," said an official working with the Meriden Department of Health and Human Services.
The virus spreads to humans through the secretions of the affected animal — usually the saliva.— Dr. Charles Livaudais, North Hills Animal Hospital.
The first symptoms of rabies can appear from a few days to more than a year after the bite happens; average is about two months.
Fever, headache, malaise, loss of appetite, vomiting, pain, itching, or numbness and tingling at the site of the wound are common symptoms during first stage of the disease.
Symptoms during the second stage include difficulty in swallowing, foaming at the mouth, agitation, disorientation and paralysis. Patient may go to coma or even die.
The first [symptom] is generally pain or tingling — like a bee sting... Soon after that, fever develops, followed by confusion [and] agitation. ... People eventually die from going into a coma.— Emily Pieracci, veterinary epidemiologist for the CDC.
Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear, but treatment before this is very effective.
Wound cleansing, debridement, and careful exploration for foreign body (eg, broken tooth) are some activities performed by the doctor as soon as the wound is presented for treatment.
CDC recommends prophylaxis (protective treatment) after a wildlife bite from an animal suspected to have rabies.
Presence of rabies in all wildlife may be indicated by unprovoked aggression, impaired movement, paralysis, lack of coordination, unusually friendly behavior and/or disorientation.— CDC
Vaccinate your dogs and cats against rabies. Do not allow them to roam unsupervised. Leave stray mammals alone.
In May 2019, Birgitte Kallestad, 24, a Norwegian woman died from rabies after she played with an infected puppy that she attempted to rescue while on vacation.
The puppy is thought to have infected her when it bit her (in February) after they took it back to their resort. Her family said she had sterilised the "small scrapes" given by the puppy as she played with it, but sought no more medical attention.
Avoid wild animals, even if they appear friendly. Do not feed them from your hand. Avoid keeping them as pets.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices released recommendations in 2010 for a reduced (4-dose) vaccine schedule for Post Exposure Prophylaxis to prevent human rabies.
"Rabies is best prevented by vaccinating pets, staying away from wildlife, and seeking medical care after potential exposures before symptoms start," says Jeremy Eschliman, Two Rivers Public Health Department.
Authorities need to deploy rabies vaccine mobile vehicles. They may also be used to spread awareness about the disease.
Avoid feral cats, stray dogs and all wildlife particularly raccoons, bats, foxes, skunks, otters, bobcats and coyotes.
If we all take some time to tidy up around our homes, make sure our pets are current on their vaccinations, and leave wildlife alone, we can minimize the possibility of our families and pets becoming ill.— Kaylan Stinson, Boulder County Public Health regional epidemiologist.
This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.
© 2019 Srikanth R