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Management of Acne - How to Control and Cure!!

Updated on August 13, 2011

Acne is a common yet a disfiguring skin condition seen among teenagers and young adults. However, it is too often neglected as a minor skin ailment not worthy of treatment, as it is considered as an event occurring associated with the puberty. Because of the risk of severe disfiguring with extensive scarring if left untreated, it is important to be aware of the condition and when to seek dermatological attention as well as the available modalities of treatment.

Management of acne involves several aspects. Here the severity grade of the lesions is very important. Acne lesions are divided into inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions. Noninflammatory lesions consist of open and closed comedones. Inflammatory acne lesions are characterized by the presence of one or more of the following types of lesions: papules, pustules, and nodules (cysts). Papules are less than 5 mm in diameter. Pustules have a visible central core of purulent material. Nodules are greater than 5 mm in diameter. Nodules may become suppurative or hemorrhagic. Suppurative nodular lesions have been referred to as cysts because of their resemblance to inflamed epidermal cysts. Recurring rupture and reepithelialization of cysts leads to epithelial-lined sinus tracks, often accompanied by disfiguring scars.

A severity grade based on a lesion count approximation is assigned as mild, moderate, or severe. The severity grading of inflammatory lesions are as follows;

·         Mild- Papules and pustules are few to several and no nodules

·         Moderate- Papules and pustules are several to many, and few to several nodules

·         Severe- Papules and Pustules numerous or extensive, and nodules many

Treatment is targeted on the pathogenesis of acne which involves increased amounts of keratin blocking the pores, increase amount of sebum secretion and proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes in sebum causing inflammation. Therapeutic agents with each action are stated below;

1.      Normalize the pattern of follicular keratinization

·         Tretinoin

·         Isotretinoin

2.      Inhibit sebaceous gland function

·         Estrogens( oral contraceptive pill)

·         Isotretinoin

·         Anti-androgens  spiranolactone

3.      Antibacterial effect

·         Benzoyl peroxide

·         Topical antibiotics

·         Oral antibiotics

Individuals having the mild disease with comedones are treated with retinoid which is sufficient since there is not much of inflammation. Closed comedone acne (whiteheads) respond slowly. A large mass of sebaceous material is impacted behind a very small follicular orifice. The orifice may enlarge during treatment, making extraction by acne surgery possible.

Retinoids are applied at bedtime. The base and strength is selected according to skin sensitivity. Start with a low concentration of the cream or gel (available in 0.05% and 0.1%) and increase the concentration if irritation does not occur. Medications are used more frequently if tolerated. Benzoyl peroxide, topical antibiotics or combination medicine later is added to discourage P. acne and the formation of inflammatory lesions. The response to treatment is slow and discouraging. Several months of treatment is required. Large open comedones (blackheads) are expressed; many are difficult to remove. Several weeks of treatment facilitates easier extraction. Topical therapy may have to be continued for extended periods.

Mild inflammatory acne with papules/pustules should be started on Benzoyl peroxide, a topical antibiotic, or combination medicine and a retinoid. It is initially applied on alternate evenings and lowest possible concentrations are used. After the initial adjustment period, the retinoid is used each night and benzoyl peroxide or antibiotic each morning. The strength of the medications is increased if tolerated. Oral antibiotics are introduced if the number of pustules does not decrease. Topical therapy may have to be continued for extended periods.

Patients who have moderate-to-severe acne (more than 20 pustules) are treated with twice-daily application of a topical antibiotic, benzoyl peroxide, or combination medicine or the combination of benzoyl peroxide and sulfacetamide/sulfur. This drying agent program can be very effective. Patients using drying agents should adjust the frequency of application to induce a mild, continuous peel. Response to treatment may occur in 2 to 4 weeks. Oral antibiotics are used for patients with more than ten pustules. Treatment should be continued until no new lesions develop (2 to 4 months) and then should be slowly tapered. If there are any signs of irritation, the frequency and strength of topical medicines should be decreased. A retinoid can be introduced if the number of pustules and the degree of inflammation has decreased. Those who have responded well may begin to taper and eventually discontinue oral antibiotics.

If patient has severe nodulocystic acne including localized cystic acne (few cysts on face, chest, or back), diffuse cystic acne (wide areas of face, chest, and back), pyoderma faciale (inflamed cysts localized on the face in females) and acne conglobata (highly inflammatory, with cysts that communicate under the skin, abscesses, and burrowing sinus tracts), a different approach is required. The patient is assured that effective treatment is available since they are psychologically depressed due to the disfiguring disease condition. A primary therapeutic goal is to avoid scarring by terminating the intense inflammation quickly; prednisone is sometimes required. Isotretinoin is oral retinoid which is important in treating severe disease and if patient is not suitable for that since it has high degree of teratogenicity, oral contraceptive pills combined with spiranolactone can also be considered. Cysts with thin roofs are incised and drained. Deeper cysts are injected with triamcinolone acetonide. Patients who show little tendency to form scars can be treated as patients with moderate-to-severe inflammatory acne.

Treatment of acne is difficult since patients are sensitive over the issue and they easily get disappointed since they do not get the results to meet their expectations. The time taken for results to appear should be explained so that there will be proper compliance from the patient.

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    • profile image

      mihiri 5 years ago

      how can i buy it near places (kandy/colombo)

    • Nadeeshan301 profile image
      Author

      Chathurika Dhanasekara 6 years ago from Kandy - Sri Lanka

      Dear jami l. pereira,

      Though it is not very common to have acne in your forties, you are not alone and don't get discouraged as with the advancements in dermatology, there are many methods coming up like what we have described in this hub.

      We are very pleased to hear your appreciation on our hub and thank you for your comments and voting this up! You are always welcome in our hubs for questions and comments!

    • profile image

      jami l. pereira 6 years ago

      Im in my mid forties and still at times my face breaks out like a twelve year old , I thought this hub was informative and usefuli voted it as such , i also voted up .Great Hub ! thanks for sharing!:)

    • Nadeeshan301 profile image
      Author

      Chathurika Dhanasekara 6 years ago from Kandy - Sri Lanka

      Thank you Melissatwin1,

      We beg your pardon for including some medical jargon in the hub. We are putting a lot of effort to write the meanings as well when we have to include such terms.

      Thanx again for your constructive and encouraging comments! Glad that this hub was useful to you!

    • Melissatwin1 profile image

      Melissatwin1 6 years ago from Philippines

      Useful hubs though I don't understand some jargon words :) Anyway, Google will help me that.

    • Nadeeshan301 profile image
      Author

      Chathurika Dhanasekara 6 years ago from Kandy - Sri Lanka

      Thanx for the comment kschimmel!! Glad that the hub was useful to you!

    • kschimmel profile image

      Kimberly Schimmel 6 years ago from North Carolina, USA

      I needed this article! It will be easier to understand the dermatologist when my daughter goes there.

    • Nadeeshan301 profile image
      Author

      Chathurika Dhanasekara 6 years ago from Kandy - Sri Lanka

      Dear Rooskaya,

      Retinol is a form of vitamin A. SO, it doesn't have many side effects. However, it is contraindicated in pregnancy (strictly advised not to use) as it can become teratogenic (harmful to the foetus). Benzoyl peroxide is to be used night time as exposure it can harm the skin when it is exposed to sunlight. It is always advisable to read the leaflet of any cosmetic preparation for the directions for use and to use preparations only after taking advise from a knowledgeable person such as a cosmologist or a dermatologist.

      Thank you for your comment and you are always welcome for future comments and questions!!

    • Rooskaya profile image

      Rooskaya 6 years ago from Russia

      A very informative hub by you. Does retinol (mild usage)have any side effects if used for a long period of time to treat acnes and wrinkles. Nowadays, it is used in a lot of beauty products. Are they (cosmetics meant for day) safe to use if we move out during day. Thank you. You have great hubs.

    • Nadeeshan301 profile image
      Author

      Chathurika Dhanasekara 6 years ago from Kandy - Sri Lanka

      Thank you b. Malin and thanx for following!! Glad to hear that the information was useful.

    • b. Malin profile image

      b. Malin 6 years ago

      Wonderful and very Informative Hub on Management of Acne, which sometimes at any age can be a problem. I certainly still get Flair ups of breaking out, every now and then. I look forward to following your Hubs, Nadeeshan, and thanks for following mine as well!