Mode of Exercise
The mode of exercise in a resistance exercise program refers to form of exercise, the type of muscle contraction that occurs, and the manner in which the exercise is carried out. For example, a patient may perform an exercise dynamically or statically or in a weight-bearing or non-weight-bearing position. Mode of exercise also encompasses the form of resistance, that is, how the exercise load is applied. Resistance can be applied manually or mechanically.
As with other determinants of resistance training, the modes of exercise selected are based on a multitude of factors already highlighted throughout this section, A brief overview of the various modes of exercise is presented in this section.
Type of Muscle Contraction
The type of muscles of muscle contraction that may be performed in a resistance exercise program and their relationships to each other and to muscle performance.
Strength - Power - Endurance
Muscle Contraction Performance
Dynamic Concentric - Isometric (Static) - Dynamic Eccentric
Types of Muscle Contraction
Dynamic Concentric Isometric (Static) Dynamic Eccentric
Isometric (static) or dynamic muscle contraction are two broad categories of exercise.
1- Dynamic resistance exercise can be performed using concentric (shortening) or eccentric (lengthening) contraction, or both.
2- When the velocity of limb movement is held consistent by a rate-controlling device, the term isokinetic contraction is sometime used. And alternative perspective is that this is simply a dynamic (shortening or lengthening) contraction that occurs under controlled condition.
Position for Exercise: Weight-Bearing or Non-Weight-Bearing
The patient’s body position or the position of a limb in non-weight-bearing or weight-bearin positions also alters the mode of exercise. When a non-weight-bearing position is assumed and the distal segment (foot or hand) moves freely during exercise, the term open-chain exercise is often used. When a weight-bearing position is assumed and body moves over a fixed distal segment, the term closed-chain exercise is commonly used. Concepts associated with this approach to classifying exercises. used. When a weight-bearing position is assumed and body moves over a fixed distal segment, the term closed-chain exercise is commonly used. Concepts associated with this approach to classifying exercises.
1- Manual resistance and mechanical resistance are the two broad methods by which resistance can be applied.
2- A constant resistance free weight or weight machines.
3- Accommodation resistance can be implemented by use of an isokinetic dynamometer that controls the velocity of active movement during exercise.
4- Body weight or partial body weight is also a source of resistance if the exercise occurs in an anti-gravity position. Although an exercise performed against only the resistance of the weight of a body segment (and no additional external resistance) is defined as an active rather than an active-resistance exercise, a substantial amount of resistance from the weight of the body can be imposed on contraction muscles by altering a patient’s position.
Modes of exercise can also be classified by the energy system terms used during in exercise. Anaerobic exercise involves high-intensity (near maximal) exercise carried out for a very few number of repetitions because muscles rapidly obic exercise is associated with low-intensity, increases muscular and cardiopulmonary endurance.
Rang of Movement: Short-Arc or Full-Arc Exercise
Resistance through the full, available range of movement in necessary to develop strength through the ROM. Sometime resistance exercises are executed through only a portion of the available range. This is known as short-arc exercise. This form of exercise is used to avoid a painful arc of motion or a portion of range where the joint is unstable or to protect healing tissues after injury.
Mode of Exercise and Application to Function
Mode-specific training is essential if a resistance training program is to have a positive impact on function. When tissue healing allows, the type of muscle contraction performed or the position in which an exercise is carried out should mimic the desired functional activity.
Characteristics of Periodized Training
Period of Training
Intensity of Exericse
Volume and Frequency of Exercise
High number of reps and sets more exercise per session
High Load (peaking just prior to competition)
Decreased reps and sets
Gradual decrease in exercise load
Additional decrease in reps, sets, number of exercise, and frequency