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Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Type 2 Diabetes Related Obesity in America

Updated on November 13, 2018
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Charmaine Webb is a Public Health Advocate that aspires to educate others on population health concerns within populations at greatest risk.

Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are correlated to the onset of Sleep Apnea

Abstract

In the United States according to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the prevalence of obesity was 39.8% and affected about 93.3 million of US adults in 2015-2016. In recent studies researchers are now able to correlate diabetes related obesity to Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Obstructive sleep disorder is a growing health epidemic and a public health concern; OSA put patients at greater risk of disease when it is in association with type II diabetes and obesity. By implementation of sleep studies, weight loss interventions, and proper nutrition we want to determine will these preventative measures correct OSA, and midget against diabetes related obesity population trends. A randomize –control trial proves to be effective in a change of the population health and overall outcome of health. The Journal of Diabetes Care speaks of physicians being are more receptive to changes in health of type II diabetes patients, leading to increased morbidity and mortality of undiagnosed Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) (Foster et al., 2009). The use of polysomnography studies (SLEEP Heart Health Study) where participant was equipped with a monitor to record sleep patterns, they followed regular sleep patterns and was ask to go to sleep at regular time. The scoring scale included patient’s respiratory chest- movements, hypopnea defined at 30% and monitoring of oxygen desaturation. According to the study the absence of respiratory nasal pressure fluctuation anywhere more than 10 seconds or more was scored as hypopnea. Overall the results of the study no difference in group or baseline OSA categories of mild, moderate or severe.

In the American Medical Association Journal, a randomized controlled trial on the effects of weight-loss showed Intensive Weight loss Programs – (ILI) which shows significant change in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) health outcomes when measured by the Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI).


OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA & DIABETES RELATED OBESITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a sleep disorder that occurs during night time sleep; which often includes respiratory pauses followed by a series of other physical occurrences, the patient is usually unaware of the behavior that occurs during their sleep. Which often includes respiratory pauses followed by a series of physical occurrences loud snoring, sleep disturbances, headaches, and mood and memory impairment. According to research by Ochsner Journal of Obstructive Sleep Study (Motamedi et al, 2009) demographically research proves that (OSA) is higher in African Americans Black and Caribbean Blacks than white and Asian counterparts. This is mostly due to patient find it difficult to access continuous positive air pressure. Several factors are associated with this physiological issue like narrowing of respiratory passageway during sleep, and breathing-pauses leading to much severe health problems. This is a disturbing factor as physician’s correlates obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to several other health epidemics. Specifically, conditions like obesity, diabetes, anxiety depression and choking sensation due to poor air quality, temperatures, and pollution all contributes to obstructive sleep apnea. The purpose of this article is to determine some of the serious health issues affecting the health of American’s today like obesity, diabetes, and an obstructive sleep disorder, all of which is interrelated in a patient suffering from (OSA).


In a society where fast foods and unhealthy eating is prevalent, it’s important that obesity is address early, education is even more significant, learning how to address this disease and introducing lifestyle changes that are effective in saving lives and increasing population life expectancy. The study conducted by Journal of Diabetes Care (Fostor, Sanders, Millman, Zammit, Borradiale, Newman, Wadden, Kelly, Wing, Suyner, Darcey, & Kuna, 2009) initiated a SLEEP AHEAD study of patients which revealed of a total of 99% females and 100% male participants: only 13.4% of the participant did have OSA whereas 33.4% had mild to no OSA and 30.5% had moderate OSA and 22.6% severe OSA. Males proved to have higher AHI than females. BMI, sex, and waist circumferences were only significant predictors of the presence of OSA (Foster et al, 2009). The mean Apnea- Hypopnea Index (AHI) was 20.5. “The results concluded that Obstructive Sleep Apnea in an obese patient with type II diabetes is significant in its finding, there was 86% obese participants with higher waist circumference and increasing BMI” (Foster et al, 2009). Therefore, diabetes and obesity are causative factors in Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA).


Obesity

In the United States according to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2015-2016 the prevalence of obesity was 39.8% and affected about 93.3 million of US adults in 2015-2016. Obesity is a truly a causative factor in persons with OSA, the combination of excess fat that causes narrowing of the airway and a coughing sensation while sleeping. Further, in the study we want to determine if the change of diet and weight loss will be effective in the health outcomes of population diabetes-related obesity and OSA. The overall prevalence of obesity is higher in Hispanic –blacks and Hispanic adults than non- Hispanic white and non-Hispanic Asian adults (CDC, 2015). Shocking reports of U.S. National Obesity Self – Prevalence of Self –Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by Race/Ethnicity, State and Territory over 35% of U.S. population is non- Hispanic black are obese this is not surprising with rising fast-food chains that are strategically placed in the underserved communities and in the urban-centered neighborhoods when fast foods are most affordable and commercialized for young adult and families to patronize more regularly. This is a population public health risk and places heavier health burden upon the lives of African – American communities.





The American Medical Associate conducted a randomized study to determine if the patient with diabetes-related obesity suffering with (OSA) entered a one-year Intensive weight loss Intervention (ILI) compared to a person enrolled in Diabetes Support Education program which one would lower the patient’s (AHI).

“The results showed after 1 year more than 3 times as many participants in the ILI group than the DSE group had a total remission of their OSA, and the prevalence of severe OSA among ILI participants was half that of the DSE group. Overall, the AHI and weight loss were the strongest predictors of change in the Apnea-Hypopnea Index at 1 year (P<.01) greatest reduction in AHI” (Foster et al, 2009).

Diabetes in American Culture

The purpose of this article is to determine some of the serious health issues affecting the health of American’s today like obesity, diabetes, and the obstructive sleep disorder, all of which is interrelated to patients suffering from (OSA). Diabetes is defined as a chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to turn food into energy. The body is structured to break down food into sugar or glucose which is released into the bloodstream. As a part of the digestive process, the pancreas makes insulin which allows the blood sugar to enter into the cell readily for energy. There is a lot to know about diabetes. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports concur that 30.1 million adults nationally have diabetes and 1 in 4 do not know. A serious health concern that is morbidly effecting the health epidemic within the U.S. culture. It is vital to know the types of diabetes and diagnosis associated with the two types, to get the necessary help for family and friends that maybe ill.

Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to take insulin every day to survive. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes. (CDC, 2016)

Type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t use insulin well and is unable to keep blood sugar at normal levels. Most people with diabetes—9 in 10—have type 2 diabetes. It develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults (though increasingly in children, teens, and young adults). You may not notice any symptoms, so it’s important to get your blood sugar tested if you’re at risk. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight if you’re overweight, healthy eating, and getting regular physical activity. (CDC, 2016)

Diabetes is a public health epidemic and health concern the correlation to obesity increase our concern here in the United States as nearly half of African American in the country are obese which would mean many of them are diabetic. (It is important to be tested, with a simple finger stick, request one at your next physician visit). Persons with uncontrolled blood sugar are at greatest risk of several other diseases, and in this article, we clearly see that patients who are obese often have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may not understand their health conditions.

Nutrition

Current trends of obesity and increasing disease with the U.S. population can be attributed to urbanization income and food prices and other aspects and continued changes in our population. One of the number ways to mitigate against this epidemic of obesity, diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea is the implementation of a reasonable diet. Health outcome begins with exercise and dietary changes which is necessary for good health outcome and a healthier lifestyle. The implementation of green leafy diet, exercise with a well-balanced diet is most beneficial in the reversing disease and illness. How does nutrition play a part in the health of patient diabetic with commodities like obstructive sleep disorder and obesity? We know that high cholesterol diets, high fat can cause a host of health effects. The need for fresh drinking water, milk for bones and teeth and protein, grains, nuts, and limited starch intake is essential in health outcomes. Higher sources of fiber are essential in good health outcomes. Limited studies on nutrition in correcting obesity, and diabetes in health outcome in patients with nutritional application and reversal of health effects.

Conclusion

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a serious illness that is proven to be associated with diabetes and several other health disorder event mental disease and depression. The sleep study for OSA found that many obese patients have narrow airways because their excess fat constricting airways causing an inability to breathe at nights, mostly due to excessive weight. Obesity is the common cause of OSA. OSA study concedes that if obese participants enroll in intensive weight loss interventions (ILI) there can be a significant change in overall heath, specifically changes in sleep patterns, increasing respiration, which will reverse OSA. Diabetes is a population health concern and patients who are obese and suffering from diabetes often too experience sleep apnea. Weight loss, Nutrition Programs and other interventions are accessible for patients who would like to make lifestyle changes and overcome diabetes related obesity and OSA. The best way to address such illness is to implement daily exercise and dietary changes for better health outcomes and overcoming sleep apnea and obesity.

References

https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.html

https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/index.html

Forster, G. D., PhD, Borradaile, K. E., PhD, Sanders, M. H., MD, Millman, R., MD, Zammit, G., PhD, Newman, A. B., MD, . . . Samuel, K. T., MD. (Sept 2009). A Randomized Study on Effect of Weight Loss on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Among Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. American Medical Association, 169(17), 1619-1626. Retrieved October 11, 2018.

Kevin, M. K., BS, Andrew, M. C., ScB, & Ronald, A. G., MD. (2009). Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Growing Problem. The Ochsner Journal,9(3), 149-153. Retrieved October 18, 2018.

Foster, G. D., PhD. , Borradaile, K. E., PhD, Sanders, M. H., MD, Millman, R., MD, Zammit, G., PhD, Newman, A. B., MD, . . . Samuel, K. T., MD. (June 2009). Obstructive Sleep Apnea Among Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care,32(6), 1017-1019. Retrieved October 11, 2018.

© 2018 Charmaine Webb

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    • profile imageAUTHOR

      Charmaine Webb 

      4 weeks ago

      Obstructive Sleep Apnea is a result of obesity in persons with Type 2 diabetes, all of these are population health issues. By addressing the root cause we can reverse these illnesses. Speak with your physician to determine treatment and care. Remember that change of diet and exercise is the first level of prevention.

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