ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Osteoarthrosis (Osteoarthritis): Health Significance, Etiology, Pathology, Clinical Presentations And Management

Updated on February 13, 2014

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthrosis is predominantly a disease of the elderly but no age is immune to it. It is caused mainly by wear and tear of the joints. It may be primary or secondary.
Osteoarthrosis is predominantly a disease of the elderly but no age is immune to it. It is caused mainly by wear and tear of the joints. It may be primary or secondary. | Source

A General Overview

Osteoarthrosis is predominantly a disease of the elderly but no age is immune to it. It is caused mainly by wear and tear of the joints. It may be primary or secondary. Presence or absence of Heberden’s nodes on the distal interphalangeal joints helps in distinguishing two forms of primary osteoarthrosis- the nodal and non-nodal types.

Etiology: Hereditary factors, overuse of a joint, aging and change in the chemical characteristics of the ground substance have been associated with this disease. Causes of secondary osteoarthritis include pre-existing joint disease, obesity, hypermobility, orthropedic deformities, endocrine disorders like diabetes mellitus, acromegaly and hyperparathyroidism, and sensory neuropathies which impair joint sensations.

Pathogenesis and Pathology: Due to mechanical stress, the collagen is disrupted. This leads to alteration in the composition of the ground substance with resultant loss of resilience. The chondrocyte function and number change. Wear and tear leads to further disruption of collagen fibers. The lubricating mechanism of the joint is impaired. The normal surface matrix is lost, resulting in exposure and fibrillation of the cartilage fibers and later cleft formation. Synovial fluid gains access to the deeper layers of the cartilage. This leads to further destruction of load-bearing cartilage. The cartilage undergoes calcification. The exposed weight- bearing bones undergo eburnation. Osteophytes grow at the margins of articular bones. Still later, subchondral bone may fracture to form cysts. Though, synovial inflammation and effusion may occur, these processes are generally mild.

The Painless Herbeden Nodules

Source

Clinical Manifestations

Many cases are symptomatic though abnormalities are detectable radiologically. Knees, cervical spine, lumbar spine, hips, shoulder and distal interphalangeal joints are affected most frequently. Osteophyte formation at the distal interphalangeal joints leads to the formation of painless Heberden’s nodes. In the knees movement of the patella, sidewards causes pain. Vague pain and stiffness in the knew especially after getting up from the sitting posture are the early symptoms. The patients experience disability while walking down the stairs or slopes. The quadriceps undergoes atrophy. Transient effusions may occur even in asymptomatic cases. Osteophytes may be elicited on movement. Osteoarthritis of the cervical spine leads to a group of clinical manifestations and are described under cervical spondylosis. Affection of the lumbar spine leads to low backache and sciatica.

Radiology: The bones show subchondrial sclerosis, narrowing of joint spaces, osteophyte formation, joint destruction, cyst formation in the cortical bone and loose bodies (joint mice) within the joints.

Course And Prognosis: Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive disease which leads to considerable morbidity with passage of time.

Management: The principles of management include prevention of overuse of the affected joint, limitation of activity to reduce pain, and physiotherapy to strengthen the muscles. Application of heat and graded movements help in reducing pain.

Medical treatment is asymptomatic. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve pain and inflammation. Reduction of weight and management of metabolic and endocrine disorders may serve to arrest the progress of the joint lesions. Corrective surgery is indicated in intractable cases not responding to medical treatment.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)