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Parkinson's Disease (PD)

Updated on June 22, 2016

Signs and Symptoms of the Disease

Individuals with Parkinsonism usually experience slow movement, cognitive function reduction, behavioral changes, dementia and other pronounced poignant changes. They are sensory alterations, sleep disturbances and a wide range of psychological conditions. Even though it is said that most of the parkinsonian syndromes are idiopathic, certain individuals have genetic susceptibility. Parkinson’s disease has a wide range of syndromes in it that makes it a cocktail of syndromes

PD is well known by symptoms like tremors and rigidity. The tremors are usually present in the extremities and particularly on the distal parts. This restricts individuals to have restricted or rhythmic movements. PD individuals usually have difficulty in manipulating their movement pattern due to the involuntary tremors that they repeatedly experience. The tremors usually diminish when they are at rest or on a voluntary move. Tremor is considered as one of the obvious signs in Parkinsonism.

Disease Overview

Even though for along time Parkinson's Disease PD has not been considered as genetic disorder but of desultory origin, 5-10% of patients are known to have monogenic form of the disease. A minimum of 13 loci and 9 genes are associated with both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disease. The first proof of the disease relation with mutation was identified in 1996 when tracking and identification of mutation showed that Parkinson’s disease is hereditary. PD was declared genetically heterogeneous disorder two years after the first breakthrough after it being liked with other two chromosomal regions, and currently there are 28 chromosomal regions linked to the disorder but only six of the regions is known to undergo mutation resulting into monogenic PD.

Parkinson's Disease Management


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Effects of the Parkinsonism

Parkinsonism has myriad other defects that affect the movement. The condition has the tendencies of slowing down the movements in individuals. This makes them unable to perform certain tasks properly. Individuals with slow movement (Bradykinesia) have difficulty carrying out tasks like walking, riding on bicycles and writing. Bradykinesia is one of the disabling conditions of the PD that most individuals often experience

Functions like the planning, thinking, acting appropriately as well as avoiding inappropriate activities are usually impaired in PD. This condition can make individuals to be slow in thinking, attentiveness and in making constructive suggestions. PD has been found to have tendencies of exposing individuals to cognitive psychological disorders like dementia. It reduces person’s quality of life and general health. The condition can subject individuals into altered moods, apathy and recurrent anxiety. Some psychotic symptoms like hallucination and hypersexuality can also be noted in PD

Relationship Between Dementia, Parkinsonism, and Neuropsychological Disorders

The relationship between neuropsychological disorders, Parkinson's Disease and Dementia. It is noted that there was increased involvement of PD with dementia and most of the demented patients with PD have episodes of variant neuropsychological disorders. Moreover, there is increased issues of individuals with dementia in older ages as compared to dementia in younger ages. Most dementia cases in PD occur in latter ages.

Cut Scan That Reveals Parkinsonism

Summary of Parkinson's Disease

  • PD is a degenerative disease which occurs on the central nervous system.
  • The disease mainly affects the motor functions of the body extremities
  • Individuals with Parkinsonism usually experience slow movement, cognitive function reduction, behavioral changes, dementia and other pronounced poignant changes
  • Parkinsonism has myriad other defects that affect the movement


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