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Pathology of the Brain

Updated on December 13, 2015

Different Parts of The Human Brain

Anatomy of the Brain

Alright, so this week's topic is going to be on the brain. This first section of the article will cover the anatomy of the brain. The brain is one of the most complex and magnificent organs in the human body. Our brain gives us awareness of ourselves and of our environment, processing a constant stream of sensory data. It pretty much controls and regulates the muscle movements, the secretions of our glands, and even our breathing and internal temperature. (I know how cool is that.) Ok so first of all, the mass of fat and protein weighing about 3 pounds (which makes it around 1.4 kg). It is, one of the body's biggest organs, consisting of some 100 billion nerve cells that not only put together thoughts and highly coordinated physical actions.

Alright here's the next thing you should know about your brain,the Cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, accounting for 85 percent of the organ's weight. The distinctive, deeply wrinkled outer surface is the cerebral cortex, which consists of gray matter. The Cerebrum and it's functions consist of :

  • Behavior
  • Abstract thought processes
  • Problem solving
  • Attention
  • Creative thought
  • Some emotion
  • Intellect
  • Reflection
  • Judgment
  • and yes Libido

The next part of the brain that is responsible for our vision and reading is the famous Occipital Cortex. It encompasses the posterior portion of the human cerebral cortex and is primarily responsible for vision, reading and oh so many more. Here's the thing, if any damage is caused to the occipital lobe it will surely result in complete or partial blindness or visual agnosia depending on the location and severity of the damage. The next thing, the occipital lobe contains different areas pertaining to visual communication. One area is where visual images of language are received (the visual receiving area) and another is where it is interpreted (visual association area, yes I know too many terms that sound the same.)

Alright the next portion contains the Parietal Lobe. The parietal lobes can be divided into two functional regions. One involves sensation and perception and the other is concerned with integrating sensory input, primarily with the visual system. Some of the functions include:

  • Location for visual attention
  • Location for touch perception
  • Goal directed voluntary movements

Did you know that the left hemisphere of the parietal lobe is often more active in right-handed people, Now that's something interesting to think about. And the right hemisphere tends to be more active in left-handed people? Oh yeah! Think about it...

The next lobe we are going to talk about is the Temporal Lobe. The Temporal Lobe mainly revolves around hearing and selective listening. It receives sensory information such as sounds and speech from the ears. It also is the key to being able to comprehend and understand meaningful and great information, in fact here's the thing, we wouldn't have been able to comprehend what someone was saying to us if it wasn't for out temporal lobe.


Why the brain loves bass?

Drugs and the reaction of our brain

What do drugs do to our brain?

Well of course we do know that when we take drugs or drink alcohol it puts a huge amount of impact on our brain and of course our health overall. Lets take a closer look at some of the drugs and the effect of it on our brain.

1. ACID - (LSD) and the "Magic mushroom." -- Acid and magic mushrooms are both hallucinogenics making people see or hear things and experience a whole different world in the most trippy way! Colors and sound become distorted. Users may also experience paranoia and also have feelings of panic. The effects of acid can last up to 12 hours.

2. Cannabis (Marijuana,Weed and Dope) -- People who smoke cannabis to relax or get high often get anxiety attacks and feelings of paranoia. If you use a lot of it then you are seriously putting your health at risk. Cannabis may increase the effects of other drugs that cause drowsiness, including antidepressants, alcohol, antihistamines, sedatives (used to treat insomnia). The effects of cannabis are felt within minutes, reach their peak in 10 to 30 minutes, and may linger for two or three hours.

3. Crack and Cocaine -- Cocaine is a stimulant that gives a feeling of high and energy. powerfully addictive, psychoactive, stimulant drug. On the street it is usually sold as a fine, white powder. Giving up cocaine and crack can be mentally distressing and physically difficult for dependent users.

4. Heroin -- A highly addictive drug, heroin exhibits euphoric "rush", anxiolytic and analgesic central nervous system properties. Heroin is most often injected, however, it may also be vaporized, sniffed, used as a suppository, or orally ingested. Smoking and sniffing heroin do not produce a "rush" as quickly or as intensely as IV injection. Heroin is metabolized to morphine and other metabolites which bind to opioid receptors in the brain. Mental functioning becomes clouded due to the depression of the central nervous system. Other effects that heroin may have on users include respiratory depression, constricted pupils and nausea.

5. Ketamine - (K) -- Ketamine is an anaesthetic that makes people feel relaxed and high, but its effects are unpredictable. Ketamine can make you feel detached from yourself and others, and make existing mental health problems worse. Occasionally, people get psychotic symptoms, while the evidence is growing that long-term use of ketamine can severely damage the bladder.

The lobes of the brain and what each one controls..

1. Cerebrum - The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. It consists of four different lobes that control senses, thoughts, and movement. The cerebrum is divided into two halves that are linked by the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum passes messages between the two halves of the brain. The Frontal that controls - Emotions, planning, creativity, judgment, movement and problem solving are controlled in the frontal lobe. The Parietal that controls - The senses of temperature, taste, pressure, touch and pain are controlled in the parietal lobes. The Temporal that controls - Most hearing and language functions are controlled in the temporal lobes. Emotion, learning and auditory processes are also located here. Lastly the Occipital that controls - Vision and the ability to recognize objects are controlled in the occipital lobe.

2. Limbic System - One way in which the limbic system has been conceptualized is as the "feeling and reacting brain" that is connected between the "thinking brain" and the output mechanisms of the nervous system. I KNOW IT'S SO COOL! The hypothalamus, the primary output node for the limbic system, has many important connections. It is connected with the frontal lobes, septal nuclei and the brain stem reticular formation via the medial forebrain bundle. The hypothalamus has centers involved in sexual function, endocrine function, behavioral function and autonomic control.

3. The Brain Stem - Underneath the limbic system is the brain stem. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure.

improve cognitive performance and short-term memory loss that is sometimes experienced with stress or aging!!

Neurons and the CNS

Long and Short Term Memory

As for long term memory, there are people who remember things that happened from years ago and certain individuals who can't recall things from let's say 2-3 years ago. So in long term memory the information is transferred from short-term memory (also known as your working memory) to long-term memory through the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a very old part of the cortex, evolutionarily, and is located in the inner fold of the temporal lobe. There are many different forms of long-term memories. These memories aren't formed and retained in a single part of the brain; instead, the process of creating and storing long-term memories is spread throughout multiple regions.

Short term memory - Short-term memory is very brief. When short-term memories are not rehearsed or actively maintained, they last mere seconds. Most of the information kept in short-term memory will be stored for approximately 20 to 30 seconds, but it can be just seconds if rehearsal or active maintenance of the information is prevented. Some information can last in short-term memory for up to a minute, but most information spontaneously decays quite quickly. You can increase the duration of short-term memories to an extent by using rehearsal strategies such as saying the information aloud or mentally repeating it.

How much of our brain do we really us?

Conclusion

Overall it's a fascinating subject to be able to study what the brain does during certain situations. If you are on drugs and have feelings of nausea, headaches, hallucinations, " feeling of high" and not feeling steady, visit your provider or the ED. You may be putting your life at a very high risk.

Thanks, M

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    • mahsa setareh profile image
      Author

      Mahsa S 20 months ago

      Thank you very much Deb!

    • profile image

      Deb 20 months ago

      this is a great hub thanks for writing it..I like how it describes the different parts of the brain and what they do. Very detailed.