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*Pathology of the Muscular System*

Updated on December 23, 2015

The Muscular System

Muscular system is the system of Human Body that provides motor power for all movements of body parts. Muscular system is composed of special tissue called muscular tissue. Muscles have the ability to contract actvely to provide the force for movements of body parts. Muscular system is an important system of human body because without it, life will completely stop. Muscles produce not only those movements that are under the control of our will and that we can see and feel, but also those movements that are responsible for activities like breathing, digestion of food, pumping of blood etc.

The muscles of the head and neck perform many important tasks, including movement of the head and neck, chewing and swallowing, speech, facial expressions, and movement of the eyes. These diverse tasks require both strong, forceful movements and some of the fastest, finest, and most delicate adjustments in the entire human body.Producing the body’s ability to close the mouth, bite, and chew food, the muscles of mastication move the mandible relative to the rest of the skull. These muscles, including the masseter and temporalis, elevate the jaw forcefully during chewing and gently during speech.


The Neck Muscles, Facial Muscles and more..

The motion of the muscles of the neck are divided into four categories: rotation, lateral flexion, flexion, and hyperextension. Rotation describes the action of moving the head from side to side, lateral motion brings the ear to the shoulder, flexion moves the chin to the chest (as in looking down), and hyperextension moves the neck so that the head tilts upward.

You may have to deal with a stiff neck or tight shoulders due to the following causes:

  • Bad Posture: Keeping your neck, arms, and shoulders still for extended periods will affect your muscles. For example, it almost always leads to neck stiffness if you work on a computer all day long.

  • Injury: An injury resulting from a collision, automobile accident, or sports accident that may make your head to jerk around forcefully is more likely to cause stiffness. This may even damage the ligaments in your neck.

  • Muscle Spasm: You experience a muscle spasm when your nerves signal your muscles to contract. A spasm in the neck may lead to stiffness.

Injury- Bones and muscles can be injured. A fracture is a crack or break in a bone. A simple fracture is when a bone breaks but doesn’t tear through muscle or skin tissue. A compound fracture, however, pushes through muscle and skin. You can often see the end of the broken bone sticking out of the skin. Bones are composed of living cells so they can repair themselves. A doctor would push the parts back in place so that the bone can repair itself in the correct position. A cast is often used to hold the bone in place as it is repairing itself. Ligaments that connect bones can also be injured. A sprain is an injury in which a ligament is stretched or torn. A muscle can also be strained if it is overstretched. This can happen when people don’t lift things correctly. Many people hurt their back muscles when they bend over to lift heavy objects. The proper way to lift something heavy is with the legs. Bend the legs and then take hold of the object to be lifted. Then straighten the legs and lift the object to the proper height.

Keeping the Muscular System Healthy The first part of keeping muscles healthy is a good diet. For muscles to grow, they need the right kinds of food. Do not eat fatty foods. Eat grains such as bread and pasta. Eat lots of fruits, vegetables and dairy products. Drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water daily. Limit drinks such as soda and certain juices. They are high in sugar and can lead to fat storage in the muscles. Get regular exercise. A good exercise program has five parts: • Warm up with light exercise • Stretch • Raise your heart rate with aerobic exercise • Build muscle with resistance exercise such as weights. Because the catabolic processes of cells are never 100% efficient, some of the energy released is lost as heat. Because skeletal muscle tissues produce such a massive amount of heat even when they are doing hardly any work they have a great effect on body temperature.

Smooth muscle or "involuntary muscle" consists of spindle shaped muscle cells found within the walls of organs and structures such as the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bronchi, uterus, ureters, bladder, and blood vessels. Smooth muscle cells contain only one nucleus and no striations.

• Cardiac muscle is also an "involuntary muscle" but it is striated in structure and appearance. Like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle cells contain only one nucleus. Cardiac muscle is found only within the heart.

• Skeletal muscle or "voluntary muscle" is anchored by tendons to the bone and is used to effect skeletal movement such as locomotion. Skeletal muscle cells are multinucleated with the nuclei peripherally located. Skeletal muscle is called 'striated' because of the longitudinally striped appearance under light microscopy.

Functions of the skeletal muscle include:

• Support of the body

• Aids in bone movement

• Helps maintain a constant temperature throughout the body

The Muscular System

Each skeletal muscle fiber is a single cylindrical muscle cell. An individual skeletal muscle may be made up of hundreds, or even thousands, of muscle fibers bundled together and wrapped in a connective tissue covering. Each muscle is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath called the epimysium. Fascia, connective tissue outside the epimysium, surrounds and separates the muscles. Portions of the epimysium project inward to divide the muscle into compartments. Each compartment contains a bundle of muscle fibers. Each bundle of muscle fiber is called a fasciculus and is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the perimysium. Within the fasciculus, each individual muscle cell, called a muscle fiber, is surrounded by connective tissue called the endomysium.

Skeletal muscles have an abundant supply of blood vessels and nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, contraction. Before a skeletal muscle fiber can contract, it has to receive an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein accompany each nerve that penetrates the epimysium of a skeletal muscle. Branches of the nerve and blood vessels follow the connective tissue components of the muscle of a nerve cell and with one or more minute blood vessels called capillaries.

The Muscular System - CrashCourse Biology #31

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is the name given to a large number of medical conditions where there is a progressive weakening and wasting of muscles. Cause: The main cause is genetic. They are usually inherited from a parent or parents through their genes, but sometimes appear out of the blue. They affect babies, children, young people and adults of any race. About one in every 2,000 people in the US will have an nmd, but the effects are much wider than that. Relatives may be carrying the faulty genes while not showing any symptoms. That is why so much research has already gone into finding which genes are at fault and how they might be repaired. The genetic risks vary. In some types of nmd both the father and mother must have a faulty gene to pass it on. This is called recessive inheritance

Muscles of The Face

Don't forget to be active and keep your muscles working. They need to be fit and strong, and just like with your Lymph nodes and your overall health you have to keep your muscles hydrated. Don't forget to eat healthy so that your muscles get enough nutrients and vitamins in order to carry on though the whole day.

If you have any emergency related issues visit your M.D for more information.

Thanks, Happy Holidays, M

© 2015 Mahsa S

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      Kevin 20 months ago

      Thanks for the hub!!! Very helpful