- Mental Health
Physical Side Effects of Sadness and Depression: Understanding Mood and its Effects on the Body
Depression and its Physical Side Effects
Sadness, which is often related with depression, grief and trauma can have physical side effects as well as emotional ones. In addition to crying, feelings of hopelessness and loss of interest in things that you once enjoyed, when you do not address your sadness, you may experience physical side effects such as sleep problems, loss of energy, changes in your appetite and physical pain, explains WebMD.
Sleep Issues and Sadness
Sadness can create two distinct sleep issues. While some individuals become overly tired and sleep excessively, others suffer from insomnia, trouble falling asleep or frequent nighttime waking. Often, persons with depression or sadness may find themselves having trouble falling asleep because they are ruminating on a specific problem or simply feeling overwhelmed. In other cases, individuals with depression wake from nightmares or sleep lightly because they are unable to relax fully. Likewise, when depression causes physical pain such as headaches or body aches, this can impede one's sleep schedule. Other sleep issues may stem from biological mechanisms in the brain, says Boston University neurology professor Patrick McNamara in “Sleep and Depression,” from “Psychology Today.”
Regardless of the type of sleep problem, when you are depressed, you may find yourself feeling exhausted throughout the day, even though you got adequate sleep. Addressing these sleep problems is not always simple, however. In situations where you sleep issues are interfering with your work obligations or social life, your doctor may want to prescribe a short-term sleep aid. Likewise, many antidepressants can help you get a full night's sleep, both because of sedative properties and their ability to treat the underlying mental health problem.
In less acute cases of depression, meditation and relaxation exercises before bed can help you clear your mind and help you sleep deeply. Further, 15-30 minutes of exercises prior to bed--such as stretching or walking--can help your body prepare for rest. In addition, limiting or minimizing caffeine intake may help you get a more restful night's sleep. While a morning cup of coffee may help energize you temporarily after a bad night's rest, drinking caffeinated beverages throughout the day can make nighttime sleep more difficult. Similarly, while you may feel tempted to take daytime naps after a night of restless sleep, naps can interfere with your body's natural rhythms and make it difficult to maintain a regular sleep schedule. Although you may feel tired, maintaining a regular bedtime--even on weekends--and energizing yourself through exercise may be the best way to recover your energy and develop a better quality of sleep.
If you are depressed, you may also be tempted to turn to alcohol before bed to help you sleep. While this can be a short-term remedy for sleep problems, this is not a healthy long-term approach. Since alcohol depresses the central nervous system, it can actually make your mood worse. Further, although alcohol can put you to sleep, it can also cause nighttime wakings and--if you drink excessive quantities--lead to both health problems and further physical maladies during the daytime.
Guided Deep Body Meditation for Depression and Sleep
Changes in Energy, Depression, and Sadness
When you are sad, you may find that you do not have the same amount of energy as normal. Part of this might stem from sleep issues, but even if you are not having trouble sleeping, even normal daily tasks such as cleaning or going to work may be exhausting. Likewise, when you are sad, you may have sensations of “heaviness” or may feel physically week, explains psychiatrist Maurizio Fava in “Fatigue as a Residual Symptom of Depression,” published in “Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience.”
Although you may not feel motivated to carry out daily tasks, maintaining a regular schedule and setting reasonable, achievable goals for yourself can help you regain your energy. In addition to working on your sleep habits and exercising, encouraging yourself to participate in enjoyable activities can improve your mental state and stimulate chemical in your brain that will not only help you feel happier, but also give you more energy. For example, even a non-physical activity such as cooking a meal from scratch or watching a funny movie can go a long way to improve your mental state and in turn, give you more energy.
Your dietary habits may also play into your energy problems. For instance, when you are feeling sad or depressed, you may find it easier to choose fast food or snack foods instead of preparing meals. These meals do not always provide adequate nutrition, however.
Symptoms of Sadness and Depression: Overeating or Under Eating
Changes in your appetite are a common side effect of sadness and depression. Some people become nauseous and queasy even though they are hungry, while others may have little or no appetite at all. This can lead to significant weight loss and the health problems that go along with it, such as inadequate nutrient intake. Other people who are sad may have an increased appetite and eat excessively. This may lead to sudden weight gain. Generally, medical and mental health professionals consider weight changes gain or lose 10% of your weight or more over a 30 day period, when you are not consciously trying to change your weight.
If you struggle with overeating, keeping healthy snacks in your home, such as fruit, vegetables, and whole grains can help you minimize weight gain. Likewise, finding a simple workout regimen, such as 20 minute walks, three times weekly, can help you maintain a healthy weight. Such exercise regimens can also be effective for those who are underweight. By exercising and building muscle mass, you may find that your body craves more foods than before.
For persons struggling to maintain weight, antidepressant medications often increase appetite, which can mitigate the effects of depression-related weight loss. These medications may also help regulate the moods of those who overeat. That said, talk therapy can also be effective for sad or depressed persons who overeat to comfort themselves or persons who have aversions to food. By learning new coping strategies and ways of viewing problems, persons can learn to avoid unhealthy habits, such as binge eating or skipping meals.
Depression and Unexplained Aches and Pains
Unaddressed sadness often causes numerous physical pains that have no other medical explanation. For instance, you might experience headaches, backaches, muscle tightness or chest pains. These physical pains often stem from the biological origins of sadness, namely, the poor regulation of neurotransmitters in the brain. Because some of the neurotransmitters responsible for feelings of sadness are also connected to our ability to feel pain, when sadness stems from a chemical imbalance of the brain, aches and pains are a common side effect, explains Madhukar H. Trivedi, M.D. in “The Link Between Depression and Physical Symptoms,” published in “The Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry.”
Because physical illnesses and diseases can also cause depression, it is important to get a full physical examination if you are having unexplained pain or soreness. Once your doctor rules out an underlying medical cause for your pain, he or she can determine the best means of pain relief. For depression-related pain, improving you mood, rather than treating the short-term symptoms may be the best course of action. While your doctor may prescribe pain medication for immediate use, he may also suggest other strategies such as specific exercise regimens, such as yoga, or other exercise-based therapies.