Principles Of Therapeutics In Dermatology And Their Health Significance In Treating Skin Disorders II
Psoriaderm Scalp: An Antipruritic Agent
A General Overview
The two main therapeutic applications in dermatology are local therapy applications, which has been discussed in the previous hub and ingestion therapy where drugs are used. This hub will focus more on the ingestion/ parenteral therapy.
Antipruritic Agents: Itching is the most commong and troublesome complaint in dermatological disorders. No doubt, specific therapy is the ideal way to abolish this symptom, but when this is not possible or immediate relief is to be provided, symptomatic therapy is indicated. Chloretone (butyl chloral) which is an analogue of chloral hydrate is a safe antipruritic agent in a concentration of 3 to 5%. Menthol, camphor and phenol is acceptable concentrations are also effective.
Keratolytic agents: These are employed for promoting desquamation of scales of removal of thickened stratum corneum. They are useful in the treatment of disorders like palmo-plantar keratoderma, icthyosiform dermatoses, psoriasis and dermatitis associated with lichenification. Salicylic acid, urea and resorcin are commonly used Keratolytic agents.
Anti-inflammatory agents: Anti-inflammatory agents reduce the severity of inflammation and minimized tissue damage when employed with other specific therapy. Though mild inflammatory processes can be controlled with soothing agents, sever inflammatory responses demand the use of drugs like croticosteroids, gentian violet, brilliant green, icthyol, etc. Betamethason benzoate (0.025%), betamethasone valerate (0.12%) and flucinolone acetonide (0.025%) are commonly used at present.
Antibacterial Agents: These are employed for the treatment of skin disorders caused primarily by bacterial infection or where secondary infection is suspected. Gentian violet, brilliant green, acriflavine, mercurochrome, zinc oxide, boric acid, ammoniated mercury, quinoline compounds, furacin and all antibiotics can be used for this purpose.
Sun Screens: These are used to protect the skin from sunlight. These may act as reflectors or absorbers of light. Reflectors help in preventing the rays from entering the skin whereas chemical absorbers absorb sunlight. Agents like para- aminobenzoic acid, benzophenones, tannic acid, titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are usually employed as sun screens.
Occlusive dressings: These are employed when a drug is to be applied in close contact with the skin and it is to be kept in position to favour absorption and prolonged action. Moreover, the moisture released by the skin helps in softening the lesions and favour resolution, eg, psoriasis.
Preparing For Skin Surgery
Occlusive Dressing Of The Skin
Indications for systemic therapy:
- The dermatological manifestation is part of a systemic disease
- Extensive lesions;
- Lesions situated in regions where local applications are impossible or ineffective;
- Systemic complications occurring from the dermatological disorder, eg, infection; and
- When locally applied therapeutic agents are unable to control the disease process.
Antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and antineoplastic drugs are usually employed for this purpose.
Minor Surgical Procedures: These are indicated when the disease process is not amenable to medical therapy. Excision biopsy procedures, incision of abscesses, extraction of comedones and cauterization are a few of the procedures employed. Electrosurgical procedures such as electro-dessication, electro-coagulation, electrogulguration, electrosurgical excision, electrolysis and cryosurgery are employed in specific indications.
© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama