- Personal Health Information & Self-Help
Quit Smoking Online
An Online Approach with Quitting Smoking Tobacco
Executive Summary: Instructional Need
The intent of this instructional design aims to encourage people that are ready to quit smoking tobacco products to quit. The instructional design will use an online delivery system because it offers convenience, supports a self-learning process, and supplements the design content with multiple media sources. The targeted audiences are smokers that are primed to quit; however, they are required to have access to a computer and the internet. The approach is to splinter from the ordinary learning scheme that concerns reaping health benefits with a design that cultivates a keen sensitivity to the perils caused from smoking tobacco products. Lessons will focus on refining sensory awareness with text, audio and video, animation, simulations, and interactivities. Lesson assessments consist of self-evaluations, but supported by review tests, interactive assessment events, and support aids.
The online delivery platform will distribute to both Macintosh and Windows operating system and support a variety of browsers, but will maintain design equality. The online program will be effortless to guide, but will consist of a help tab to resolve common problems. The delivery system also provides online synchronous learning and live support group sessions to avoid feeling isolated. In addition, a certified counselor will be available to foster the learner throughout the instructional process. Moreover, the design will be available open-endedly to support individual learning attainment and available after instructional accomplishments to sustain learner attainment.
Learning Need/Market Opportunity: Realistic Accomplishments
The decision to produce an online instruction to quit smoking tobacco products is to supply the user with success. Often, users that want to quit smoking rely on self-directed methods that reduce the amount of consumption, such as chewing gum or eating candy to replace the physical habit, choosing not to smoke in the home or vehicle, and/or eliminate daily aspects that enhance addiction enticements. Another and more challenging self-direct method is to go “cold turkey” or a decision to quit smoking without aid, but bad habits are hard to terminate due to commitment fading from the lack of support. For example, a user that goes hiking with his family on vacation may develop personal meaning to quit smoking tobacco products because the effects from smoking make the walk emotionally and physically strenuous, but the therapeutic meaning dissipates because the hike was not a daily activity that serves as a reminder to recommit. Learners need to enhance their personal growths that engage the desire to quit smoking tobacco products.
Withdrawal symptoms are common side effects that challenge users to quit smoking tobacco, but consumer products create additional difficulties. Current products, such as nicotine patches, nicotine gum, prescription pills, and others increase the quitting difficulty because users experience adverse reactions from the product. Furthermore, advertisements place too much emphasis on product reliance (Smoking, 2012), which enables the user to detach meaning from the self-direct process. Marketing products may simplify the user’s need to quit smoking tobacco, but they fail to enhance the user’s wants or commitment to quit smoking. Due to consumer products’ lack of effectiveness to help users quit smoking tobacco, there is a market opportunity for an online instructional training program. For instance, instead of applying a patch to curb a crave, vigorously chew gum to attain satisfaction, or consume pills prescribed by the doctor to reduce the urge, the new concept will differentiate from all other aids because This online training program focuses on enhancing the user's commitment to quit smoking. In addition, the instructional design and features are conveniently available for the user because the content is online. The continual uncertainties of previous marketed products make it ideal to step away from product reliance and employ a more realistic process that can be achieved with the possibilities of today’s technology.
Do you think an approach that triggers an emotional response will be effective?
Instructional Goals: Defeating the Addiction
The main instructional goal is for learners to quit smoking tobacco products; however, there are several subordinate goals to accomplish before the learner attains the instructional goal (Allen, 2007). Successful learners will be able to establish and build comprehensive knowledge concerning the risks of smoking tobacco products. The learners will also attain nurture personal meanings or commitments that will aid supporting the behavioral change. Other objectives include the learner enhancing sensory awareness, such as smelling the distinctive odor, hearing emphysema, sighting smoke tainted objects, and other consequences due to users smoking tobacco. More importantly, learners will know they can receive support from peers, counselors, and other design feature aids. The purpose of the subordinate goals is to facilitate the learning process by delivering a meaningful and memorable experience to achieve the final goal, to quit smoking tobacco products.
Audience Definition: Prepared Online Believers
The audience is any individual that is ready to quit smoking tobacco products using an online delivery system. The process to quit smoking tobacco originates from self-direct efforts; therefore, the design targets users that are motivated to quit. Lesson progressions will vary according to knowledge, experience, and other learner characteristics (Cennamo & Kalk, 2005). Although the targeted audience is diverse by nature, intermediate, moderate, and extreme smokers are types of subgroups that define the style of an online instruction. For example, a user that has smoked tobacco for twenty years is most likely more self-aware of their health distresses than a user that has smoked for a year; as a result, the more extensive smoker may advance through a self-awareness lesson sooner, whereas, the less extensive smoker may need additional lessons. Other subgroups may include the number of times the user has attempted to quit smoking or the severity of their health. Sub-grouping the targeted audience will assist the design developers to choose the right framework to enhance the user motivation, but the instructional goal to quit smoking will be the common influential factor.
Delivery Environment: Internet Hotspots
The instructional design delivery method will be online and the setting can take place in any environment with an internet connection: home, public library, café, or other internet access hotspots. The online design will mainly consist of asynchronous learning because the system best aids developing personal meaning in a self-direct process. The majority of the lessons will consist of online completions; however, learners will be able to download important content to view offline. Although the instructional format focuses on learners working independently, the design will also include synchronous learning to aid progressions. Synchronous sessions will include webinars, peer interactions, support groups, and counseling sessions in an attempt to aid learning, overcome hardships, and exclude seclusion. If the learner is unable to attend a live discussion, a file with the recorded session will be available for examining. The online delivery system conveniently allows the distribution of instruction to many prepared learners in many locations, which proves to be an efficient and effective delivery method.
General Outcomes: Preliminary Gains
The general outcomes learners will demonstrate that they could not prior to the online design are performing critical analyses and actions. Users that smoke tobacco will replace ignorance and arrogance because learners will increase awareness of the risks associated with smoking. General outcomes also include enhancing sensory motor skills. Learners will be able to sight visual effects produced from smoking tobacco: stained teeth, yellow skin, and other smoke hindrances. Learners will be able to detect liabilities related to smoking tobacco using the sense of hearing: coughing, wheezing, and voice changes. Learners will also exhibit the awareness with tobacco product odors by using the sense of smell: bad breath, smoke saturated clothes, and distinctive ashtray odors. Moreover, users that enhance their sensory motor skills will be able to enhance meaning (Jensen, 2008) and as a result, demonstrate sensitivities towards the risks produced by smoking tobacco products. The most desirable performance demonstrations are for learners to reduce or quit the consumption of smoking tobacco products with the aid of the design.
Assessment Strategies: Demonstrating Competency
Learners that enhance their motivation with personal gains will demonstrate subordinate goal mastery before progressing to the next phase (Cennamo & Kalk, 2005). For instance, before the learner can proceed with attaining further knowledge, the user needs to pass a preliminary true and false test regarding basic knowledge. Then pass a multiple-choice test demonstrating the mastery of facts and then a written assignment that demonstrates the learner attained personal meaning with the information. Other tests will challenge sensory motor awareness gains. For example, the user may need to identifying stages of emphysema by listening to sounds of a smoker’s cough, fabricate the visual characteristics as a result of smoking tobacco products in a self-portrait, and construct a diagram of all the people on a daily basis that potentially smell the odor of tobacco smoke. A more real-life assessment may be a computer simulation where the learner is a distressed character in an environment with social smokers and attempts to create a friendlier environment by eliminating the risks with correct interactive actions, such as adding a no smoking sign, or building an outside area for smokers. More importantly, the learner needs to be self-aware of his or her progress to determine if they are ready to move on to the next objective, repeat the prior lesson, or acquire additional learning aids from the design support center.
Content Organization: Methodical Refinements
The organization of the design will consist of a systematic process supported by online content that will end with the user quitting smoking tobacco. The first part of the design will refine the learner’s common knowledge about the risks of smoking tobacco with online books, images, videos, and web links that support achieving the related lesson objectives. Due to the scope of information with the many risks involved with smoking tobacco, the first stage will consist of several online lessons, objectives, and formative assessments to measure performances. To complete the knowledge refinement stage successfully, the learner is required to pass an online summative assessment comprised of several evaluation strategies: true and false, multiple choice, and multiple interactive undertakings.
After refining their knowledge, the learners will apply the information to develop personal meaning by sensitizing sensory skills towards the risks with smoking tobacco products. Lessons will consist of enhancing sense of sight, smell, and hearing as well as overtly enhancing interpersonal and intrapersonal skills. However, this section of the design does not require attaining sensory enhancements in any particular order. The content for these lessons will include electronic text, but online images, videos, simulations, and animations will predominantly emphasize the intended message. Tests are similar to the assessments found in the first stage, but focus on virtual interactivities, such as video games to evaluate sensory awareness. In addition, each lesson will offer synchronous sessions to aid learning progression. As a result of refined knowledge, enhanced sensory skills, and a support system, the learner will be able to quit smoking tobacco products.
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The internet contains an abundance of information to use at zero financial expense. Creditable content to support the design can be found on internet databases, journals, and web URL’s ending in .edu, .org, and .gov. Other viable media are attainable by using various search engines, such as Google, Yahoo, and Bing. The design can also direct users to YouTube, TedTV, other worthy media websites and counselors to support learning objectives.
Instructional Strategies: Enhancing Success
The instructional design aims to implement strategies that will enhance meaning to quit smoking tobacco products successfully. As oppose to outlining the health benefits, the strategy aims to employ the risk factors of smoking tobacco products to discourage the dependency with the substance. Lesson content will focus on multiple domains of intelligences to address diverse learners. For instance, the learning events listed in general outcomes include enhancing sensory motor skills, which embrace learners that are prominent with cognitive theorist, Howard Gardner’s spatial, linguistic, musical, logical, kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal intelligent domains (Smith, 2008). Demonstrations, animation, and simulations will also be available, where applicable, to include multiple domains of intelligence as well as enrich meaning. All activities and assessments will be available for frequent use to check progress, review content, or to attain greater understanding. For example, the user may receive a ninety percent on a visual awareness assessment, but will be able to complete the related activities and assessment for review or to achieve a higher percentage. Immediate feedback after each activity and assessment will be available in detail to reinforce the learner’s correct answers and support incorrect answers by directing the learner to the information in the lesson. Synchronous sessions will also live events discussions that include content, activity, and assessment reviews as well as support group sessions and counselors to aid the process.
Standards: Design Necessities
It is important for the design to implement standards to ensure overall effectiveness. Text content will not exceed an eighth grade reading and comprehension level. All instructions, directions, and assessments will include an audio icon for audio assistance. Text web links will be assessable by clicking on the URL. The design will focus on multiple media presentations and activities to prevent monotonous learning. Online resources and web links will include recent studies and contain quality media. A chat box will be mandatory for interactions with synchronous sessions, and audio and video interactions will be optional. Each synchronous session will include a moderator to ensure proper and suitable interactions. The design will offer certified counselors, support groups, and technicians to facilitate learning.
Most of the design lessons will utilize internet content. Web links regarding refining common knowledge will contain informative and comprehensive text from creditable websites. The design lessons that aim to sensitize the learner’s senses will utilize the internet’s multimedia sources: videos, animations, and simulations. Images are also a good source of media to trigger an emotional response about risks with smoking tobacco products as well as valuable with enhancing the learner’s sensory awareness.
Evaluation Plans: Design Assessment
The usability assessments contribute to conveying vital information about programs, but the whole design needs testing. The evaluation will consist of both formative and summative assessments. The formative assessments will consist of unbiased testers that will complete a certain lesson or lessons delivered by online sponsors. The instructional designer, team members, sponsors, or other design affiliates will deliver a summative assessment to a group of qualified and unbiased learners to test the whole design. Digital feedback from the formative assessments will determine important information such as what content(s) to keep and eliminate. The digital feedback from summative assessment will allow the design team to determine if time allotted for tests are adequate. Feedback surveys completed by the test learners will include information such as if test questions are comprehensive, what content engage their senses the most, if the lessons were meaningful, and more.
Overall Interface and Navigation: Objective Map
Collaborative efforts with the production team, graphic designer, and programmer will establish the overall interface and navigation according to the learners needs (Cennamo & Kalk, 2005). In general, the online design will consist of a homepage where the user will be able to access functional tabs: the user account tab, help tab, lesson tab, review tab, progress tab, and login/log out tab. The user account tab will contain personal information and homepage tab. The help tab will display subgroup links: common technical issues, support contact information, support group information, live sessions with a counselor, and homepage link. The lessons tab will consist of an asynchronous tab that directs the user to choose to start a new lesson, continue a lesson, or save and quit. The lesson tab will also consist of a synchronous tab that informs learners of dates and times of live sessions, an enter session tab, a quit tab, a homepage tab, a help tab. The review tab will display all the completed lessons, activities, and assessments for frequent use and review, a homepage tab, help tab, a progress tab, and a lessons tab. The progress tab will display the objective accomplishments, completed lessons, lesson reports, and a progress report with the current lesson. The progress tab will also have a help tab, review tab, and a homepage tab.
Developmental Tools: Design Opportunity
The online design will consist mainly of online content, but a technical team is required to determine what tools are needed to support the design product (Cennamo & Kalk, 2005). However, the general tools that are in need to support online content include Flash, Adobe Reader, Adobe Acrobat, Active X, and Java. With further technical assistance, the design team can provide the tool requirements that support interactivities with video games, simulations, animations, and other media undertakings. Additional external tools required include speakers or headphones. External tools not required, but may be helpful with synchronous sessions include microphone and web camera.
The design program needs testing to ensure that the usability is stress free for the learners. One way to test for ease of use is to introduce the design to a select group of learners from the targeted audience (Parlee, 2012). To ensure proper testing, there will be three select groups of learners from the targeted audience. Each group will consist of twenty-five diverse learners, but categorized by age. Age continues to play a major role with learner computer interactions, so the three groups will represent three different age groups to test the usability among different age cohorts. Together, the groups will consist of seventy-five diverse learners to test the usability of the program with various learners. If the ease of use does not meet the developing team’s expectations, a usability specialist may be required to assist accomplishing the objective.
Smoking. (2012, n/a n/a). Retrieved from FDA Office of Women's Health: http://promotions.usa.gov/DearAbby/smoking_medicines_to_hellp_you.pdf.
Allen, M. W. (2007). Designing Successful E-Learning Forget What You Know about E-Learning and Do Something Interesting. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Carl E. Bartecchi, T. D. (2012, n/a n/a). The Human Costs of Tobacco Use. Retrieved from The New England Journal of Medicine: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199403313301307#t=article.
Cennamo, K., & Kalk, D. (2005). Real World Instructional Design. Belmont: Wadesworth Cengage Learning.
Jensen, E. (2008). Brain-Based Learning The New Paradigm of Teaching (Second ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Parlee, S. (2012, September 29). Week 4 Assignment Rubric. Retrieved from Ashford University: https://frameset.next.ecollege.com/(NEXT(9e721f8dd8))/Main/AllMode/FramesetHybrid/GeneralFramesetView.ed.
Smith, M. K. (2008, n/a n/a). howard gardner, multiple intelligences and education. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from Infed: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm.