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Radiographic Representation Of Lung Cyst (Lung Cancer) Through Various X-Rays

Updated on February 06, 2014

Explaining An X-ray To A Patient

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Carcinoma Of The Lung

Bronchial carcinoma accounts for 95% of primary lung tumours. The rest are benign tumours and rarer types of cancers, e.g alveolar cell carcinoma. Bronchial carcnoma is the most common malignant tumour in the western world and in the Uk the third most common cause of death after heart diseases and pneumonia.

This hub is aimed at showcasing its effect on the lungs via X-rays alone.

Lung Cancer (Lung Cyst) On Chest X-Ray

Lung cancer (also known as carcinoma of the lung) is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue or other part
Lung cancer (also known as carcinoma of the lung) is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung in a process called metastasis into nearby tissue or other part | Source
Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells.
Most cancers that start in lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. | Source
The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), also called oat cell cancer, and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and che
The main types of lung cancer are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), also called oat cell cancer, and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and che | Source
The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke, which causes 80–90% of lung cancers.
The most common cause of lung cancer is long-term exposure to tobacco smoke, which causes 80–90% of lung cancers. | Source
Nonsmokers account for 10–15% of lung cancer cases, and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution[4] including second-hand smoke.
Nonsmokers account for 10–15% of lung cancer cases, and these cases are often attributed to a combination of genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, and air pollution[4] including second-hand smoke. | Source
Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy which is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guidance
Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT scan). The diagnosis is confirmed with a biopsy which is usually performed by bronchoscopy or CT-guidance | Source
Treatment and long-term outcomes depend on the type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the person's overall health, measured by performance status.
Treatment and long-term outcomes depend on the type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the person's overall health, measured by performance status. | Source
Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy
Common treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. NSCLC is sometimes treated with surgery, whereas SCLC usually responds better to chemotherapy and radiotherapy | Source
Overall, 15% of people in the United States diagnosed with lung cancer survive five years after the diagnosis. Outcomes are worse in the developing world. Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, a
Overall, 15% of people in the United States diagnosed with lung cancer survive five years after the diagnosis. Outcomes are worse in the developing world. Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women, a | Source
respiratory symptoms: coughing, coughing up blood, wheezing or shortness of breath. systemic symptoms: weight loss, fever, clubbing of the fingernails, or fatigue
respiratory symptoms: coughing, coughing up blood, wheezing or shortness of breath. systemic symptoms: weight loss, fever, clubbing of the fingernails, or fatigue | Source
symptoms due to local compress: chest pain, bone pain, superior vena cava obstruction, difficulty swallowing
symptoms due to local compress: chest pain, bone pain, superior vena cava obstruction, difficulty swallowing | Source
If the cancer grows in the airway, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. The obstruction can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, and predispose to pneumonia
If the cancer grows in the airway, it may obstruct airflow, causing breathing difficulties. The obstruction can lead to accumulation of secretions behind the blockage, and predispose to pneumonia | Source
Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease. In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to autoantibodies), hypercalcemi
Depending on the type of tumor, so-called paraneoplastic phenomena may initially attract attention to the disease. In lung cancer, these phenomena may include Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to autoantibodies), hypercalcemi | Source
Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus
Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus | Source
Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (poor appetite, weight loss, fever, fatigue) are not specific. In many people, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention.
Many of the symptoms of lung cancer (poor appetite, weight loss, fever, fatigue) are not specific. In many people, the cancer has already spread beyond the original site by the time they have symptoms and seek medical attention. | Source
Common sites of spread include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, opposite lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys. About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest radiogra
Common sites of spread include the brain, bone, adrenal glands, opposite lung, liver, pericardium, and kidneys. About 10% of people with lung cancer do not have symptoms at diagnosis; these cancers are incidentally found on routine chest radiogra | Source
Cancer develops following genetic damage to DNA and epigenetic changes. These changes affect the normal functions of the cell, including cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA repair. As more damage accumulates, the risk of can
Cancer develops following genetic damage to DNA and epigenetic changes. These changes affect the normal functions of the cell, including cell proliferation, programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA repair. As more damage accumulates, the risk of can | Source
Similar to many other cancers, lung cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.[38] Oncogenes are believed to make people more susceptible to cancer.
Similar to many other cancers, lung cancer is initiated by activation of oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes.[38] Oncogenes are believed to make people more susceptible to cancer. | Source
 Proto-oncogenes are believed to turn into oncogenes when exposed to particular carcinogens.[39] Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10–30% of lung adenocarcinomas.
Proto-oncogenes are believed to turn into oncogenes when exposed to particular carcinogens.[39] Mutations in the K-ras proto-oncogene are responsible for 10–30% of lung adenocarcinomas. | Source
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. Mutations and amplification of EGFR are common in non-small-cell lung cancer and provide the basis for treatment with EGFR-inhi
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and tumor invasion. Mutations and amplification of EGFR are common in non-small-cell lung cancer and provide the basis for treatment with EGFR-inhi | Source
 Her2/neu is affected less frequently. Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity. This can cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Damage to chromosomes 3p, 5q, 13q, and 17p are particularly common in small-cell lung carcinoma.
Her2/neu is affected less frequently. Chromosomal damage can lead to loss of heterozygosity. This can cause inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Damage to chromosomes 3p, 5q, 13q, and 17p are particularly common in small-cell lung carcinoma. | Source
The p53 tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 17p, is affected in 60-75% of cases. Other genes that are often mutated or amplified are c-MET, NKX2-1, LKB1, PIK3CA, and BRAF
The p53 tumor suppressor gene, located on chromosome 17p, is affected in 60-75% of cases. Other genes that are often mutated or amplified are c-MET, NKX2-1, LKB1, PIK3CA, and BRAF | Source
Performing a chest radiograph is one of the first investigative steps if a person reports symptoms that may suggest lung cancer.
Performing a chest radiograph is one of the first investigative steps if a person reports symptoms that may suggest lung cancer. | Source
This may reveal an obvious mass, widening of the mediastinum (suggestive of spread to lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse), consolidation (pneumonia), or pleural effusion.
This may reveal an obvious mass, widening of the mediastinum (suggestive of spread to lymph nodes there), atelectasis (collapse), consolidation (pneumonia), or pleural effusion. | Source
CT imaging is typically used to provide more information about the type and extent of disease. Bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often used to sample the tumor for histopathology.
CT imaging is typically used to provide more information about the type and extent of disease. Bronchoscopy or CT-guided biopsy is often used to sample the tumor for histopathology. | Source
Lung cancer often appears as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph.
Lung cancer often appears as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph. | Source
However, the differential diagnosis is wide. Many other diseases can also give this appearance, including tuberculosis, fungal infections, metastatic cancer, or organizing pneumonia.
However, the differential diagnosis is wide. Many other diseases can also give this appearance, including tuberculosis, fungal infections, metastatic cancer, or organizing pneumonia. | Source
Less common causes of a solitary pulmonary nodule include hamartomas, bronchogenic cysts, adenomas, arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary sequestration, rheumatoid nodules, Wegener's granulomatosis, or lymphoma
Less common causes of a solitary pulmonary nodule include hamartomas, bronchogenic cysts, adenomas, arteriovenous malformation, pulmonary sequestration, rheumatoid nodules, Wegener's granulomatosis, or lymphoma | Source
Lung cancer can also be an incidental finding, as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph or CT scan done for an unrelated reason
Lung cancer can also be an incidental finding, as a solitary pulmonary nodule on a chest radiograph or CT scan done for an unrelated reason | Source
The definitive diagnosis of lung cancer is based on histological examination of the suspicious tissue in the context of the clinical and radiological features.
The definitive diagnosis of lung cancer is based on histological examination of the suspicious tissue in the context of the clinical and radiological features. | Source
Lung cancers are classified according to histological type. This classification is important for determining management and predicting outcomes of the disease.
Lung cancers are classified according to histological type. This classification is important for determining management and predicting outcomes of the disease. | Source
The vast majority of lung cancers are carcinomas—malignancies that arise from epithelial cells. Lung carcinomas are categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope.
The vast majority of lung cancers are carcinomas—malignancies that arise from epithelial cells. Lung carcinomas are categorized by the size and appearance of the malignant cells seen by a histopathologist under a microscope. | Source
The two broad classes are non-small-cell and small-cell lung carcinoma
The two broad classes are non-small-cell and small-cell lung carcinoma | Source
The lung is a common place for the spread of tumors from other parts of the body. Secondary cancers are classified by the site of origin
The lung is a common place for the spread of tumors from other parts of the body. Secondary cancers are classified by the site of origin | Source
breast cancer that has spread to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer. Metastases often have a characteristic round appearance on chest radiograph
breast cancer that has spread to the lung is called metastatic breast cancer. Metastases often have a characteristic round appearance on chest radiograph | Source

References

1. All X-ray photos here are from DFM E-Group, in the photo and X-ray section.

2. Notes and explanations: Wikipedia, Essentials of Clinical Medicine by Kumar and Clark's, Medicinenet and Mayor's Clinic.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

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