Sepsis (Septicemia) Causes, Symptoms and Surviving Sepsis- What You Need to Know
What Is Sepsis
Sepsis is a life threatening infection that occurs when a large number of infectious agents get into the blood either by an existing infection, a dirty needle or contagious disease. Sepsis is the leading cause of death in ICU and the 10th leading cause of death in the United States. Severe sepsis can cause organ failure. Severe sepsis can occur as a result of infection at any body site, including the lungs, abdomen, skin or soft tissue, or urinary tract and as a result of a primary blood stream infection. Sepsis is also known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Sepsis is a toxic response to infection that kills 258,000 Americans each year. It is a medical emergency that requires early detection and treatment for survival.
Sepsis can be life threatening
What Are the Causes and Symptoms of Sepsis?
There are a few different causes of sepsis. One cause of sepsis is bacteria, a fungus, some parasites and viruses. These causes of sepsis result in infections that start in one area of the body and due to the body’s response, spread to other areas. Some of the most common infection sites are the bladder, brain and kidneys. Other common sites include the liver, lungs and skin. There are cases of sepsis that have resulted in a skin infection, a scrape or anything that can cause bacteria, fungus and viruses to spread into the body.
Different infections can cause different types of illnesses. Examples of illnesses that might lead to sepsis are peritonitis, pneumonia and cellulitis. Some people might acquire sepsis through (IV) catheters or surgical wounds such as perforations of the instestine or bladder during a surgical procedure. Other causes of sepsis include appendicitis, meningitis and urinary tract infection.
Symptoms of Sepsis
- Decreased urine output or inability to urinate
- Hypothermia (very low body temperature)
- Rapid breathing
- Warm skin or a skin rash
- Fast heart rate
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Sepsis should be treated as a medical emergency and efficiently as possible as soon as it has been identified. This means rapid administration of antibiotics and fluids. A 2006 study showed that the risk of death from sepsis increases by 7.6% with every hour that passes before treatment begins.
Treatment includes IV antibiotics and IV fluids. Antibiotics by itself isn't enough as the body needs extra fluids to help keep the blood pressure from dropping dangerously low, throwing the patient into shock. Giving the fluids by IV allows the track of how much fluid is being givem and to control the type of fluid the patient is getting
Bowel Injury and Sepsis
Having a bowel injury during surgery could definitely result in sepsis. When the bowel is perforated, contents of the bowel will leak into the abdomen and result in sepsis. In order to remove the damaged portion of the bowel, the surgeon must cut both sides of the damaged bowel and remove that section of the bowel. The surgeon must then take both remaining ends and put them together and sew it tight so it forms a closed seal. That is known as an end-to-end anastomosis.