ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Sleep Paralysis Demons and Other Creatures

Updated on July 23, 2019
Sam Shepards profile image

I'm Sam. I enjoy writing about sleep and mental health-related topics as well as ways to prevent stress and to relax.

In German, the phenomenon is known as alpdrucken. In pinyin (a dialect of Chinese), guǐ yā shēn. In Hungarian, boszorkany-nyomas. Sleep paralysis and the “visitors” that accompany sleep paralysis are so widespread that almost every culture has a word for it.

The names for these visitors often reflect what the people who speak that language think the visitors are. The Hungarian term, for example, literally means “witches’ pressure.” Pinyin is a little more straightforward, meaning “ghost pressing on the body.” Most recently, in the English-speaking community, these nighttime visitors are blamed for reports of alien abduction, demon possession, and home hauntings.

Sleep Paralysis vs Nightmare

For those who have never experienced this phenomenon, it is easy to brush it off as a waking nightmare. There are likely incidents that are reported as sleep paralysis demons, which may actually be supernatural experiences. It’s impossible to know which are which. Anyone who has experienced a visitation will tell you that it feels extremely real, confirmed by the knowledge that you are actually awake. A person experiencing sleep paralysis is actually awake—the mind is, the body is not.

Those who take a critical look around their room once the experience is over and they are fully awake and able to think rationally again, often find that what they thought was a figure was actually a coat hanging on the doorknob or a shadow created by a piece of furniture.

I woke once to my little sister screaming bloody murder about a man in her room. She told me he was standing in between the two bookshelves on the opposite wall from her bed. What it was, actually, was a shadow, being cast by a combination of the bookshelves a lamp, and a vacuum cleaner my mother had left in the hallway outside of our room.

Our species has a very deeply ingrained fear of the dark. It is an evolutionary one. When we were a species that lived in small communities, in caves, the dark was full of things that would kill and eat us. The same is not true of modern society, but the fear remains. So it is easy, with the bedroom light on, to rationalize and to say, “Yes, of course, what I saw—what I imagined I saw was this or that—but in the moment, it feels real—too real.”

Manifestations of Sleep Paralysis Demons and Visitors

What are the most common manifestations of sleep paralysis demons? Here are a few that have been reported as early as the middle ages:

Incubi and Succubae

This is one of the most common early explanations for sleep paralysis and the visions that accompany it. The incubus and the succubus are essentially demons that first try to have sex with and then attack a person while they are sleeping.

Witches

If you’ve read The Crucible or seen the movie, you might recall a scene in which men and women come forward to testify to the court that the accused witches came to them in the night and “rode” them (meaning pressed down on their chest). Like the incubus and succubus explanation, this has been a popular story, especially pre-industrialization, for many people who experienced sleep paralysis. It is even the origin of the word “nightmare.” A “mare” is an old Germanic word for hag.

Demons and Malevolent Spirits

It is easy to see why this would be an assumption many people, after feeling paralyzed in their beds and sensing and/or seeing a figure looming at their side or pressing on their chest, would make. They often say that the thing in their room feels evil. It feels like it is going to hurt them. When they actually do wake up, the thing is gone. Some people have experiences so vivid that they hear the figure talking to them. Some have even said that the demon will tell them things that are going to happen over the next few days.

Alien Abductions

This is a claim that has become much more widespread in modern times. Instead of the dark, looming figure, some report seeing a bright, white figure. It still feels scary, but the circumstances are slightly different. These are often associated with out-of-body experiences or the feeling of being lifted and removed from the bed, returning hours later, having lost that stretch of time.

What Kind of Sleep Paralysis Experience Have You Had?

See results

Wildly Differing Sleep Paralysis Experiences

One of the things that makes it difficult to pin sleep paralysis down is the wildly different experiences people even in the same culture can have. While we may know that during our deepest levels of sleep, the deepest troughs of the REM cycle, the body switches off the motoneurons.

It does this so that as we are dreaming, we are not also trying to act out those dreams. We also know that in the dark, in a moment of terror, we are very good at exaggerating sight and sound, so good, in fact, that we can conjure up our own hallucinations. What types of hallucinations and experiences are most common?

Vision of a Dark, Murky Figure

This is surprisingly common and has been reported throughout history, across all populated continents. No matter what it is attributed to (witches, demons, aliens, the brain’s own fears), there is no doubt that millions of people have seen something standing over their beds when they were in a state of sleep paralysis. In the lore of sleep paralysis, they are often just called “the visitor.”

Pressure on the Chest

Like seeing a dark figure, feeling pressure on the chest and sometimes around the throat is extremely common. Science tells us that we feel this pressure because we are panicking and resisting the body, which is still technically sleeping, and therefore breathing very slowly. During the sleep paralysis experience, however, it does not really feel that way.

Out of Body Experiences

Some people report actually floating above the scene of the visitor leaning over or actually sitting on top of their paralyzed body. The out of body experience is not as common as other hallucinations and visions, but is still fairly widely reported.

Being Yanked, Pulled Out of Bed, or Scratched

These more physical experiences are much rarer than visions and pressure. Some will feel a hand close around their ankle and their leg being pulled. Some will actually feel that they are pulled out of the bed. Others will only feel like they are being scratched by something with claws or long fingernails. The interesting thing is that neuroscientists explain how the mind has a map of the body, so maybe the reasons for these experiences should be found there.

Visions of a Very Detailed Figure

Less common even than the sensation of being physically attacked is the vision of a very detailed, fully-formed person, standing near the bed, but some report both the paralysis and the apparition.

Two Books on Sleep Paralysis Visions and Demons

Case studies that entertain theories regarding sleep paralysis and nightmares beyond terrestrial explanations are difficult to find. Sure, there are the random forays into the supernatural by laymen and blog posts littered throughout the internet from personal experience, but a scholastic study that includes more esoteric observances is very uncommon indeed.

  1. Sleep Paralysis: Night-Mares, Nocebos, and the Mind-Body Connection
  2. Sleep Paralysis: A Guide to Hypnagogic Visions & Visitors of the Night

1. Sleep Paralysis: Night-Mares, Nocebos, and the Mind-Body Connection

Given that the book Sleep Paralysis: Night-Mares, Nocebos, and the Mind-Body Connection was written as a case study by a medical practitioner, the information inside, one would hope, could exceed the boundaries of haphazard speculation and lean toward a more didactic and logical approach. The answer to that speculation is, unfortunately, a bit of both.

Sleep Paralysis Historical Accounts

Historical Accounts of Sleep Paralysis

The author's descriptions from historical accounts are sound; the references a palpable example of the occurrences many individuals still experience in modern times. For example this reference to a second-century physician:

“The sleeper feels that somebody is sitting on his chest or suddenly jumps upon it or that somebody climbs up and crushes him heavily with his weight. The sufferer feels incapacity to move, torpidity, and inability to speak. Attempts to speak often result only in single, inarticulate sounds”—Soranos

Such mentions leave the reader appreciating and perhaps relieved by the fact that the results of sleep paralysis have been occurring for centuries. Also the author’s inclusion of Lilith and Ephialtes, the female and male antagonist often referred to as the culprits behind the more horrific forms of sleep paralysis and the nightmare, provides a unique insight into the religious aspects of the time.

Demons, Entities, and Visitors of the Night in Other Forms?

From there she describes other entities defined as the offender throughout different cultures, with the Succubus and Incubus being two of the more prevalent aggressors known. She goes into the historical witch trials as well. Her medical references end on a high note with the following:

“Imagination cannot conceive the horror frequently given rise to, or language describe it in adequate terms…Everything horrible, disgusting or terrifying in the physical or moral world is brought before [the victim] in fearful array; he is hissed at by serpents, tortured by demons, stunned by the hollow voices and cold touch of apparitions…At one moment he may have the consciousness of the malignant being at his side…its icy breath is felt diffusing itself over his visage, and he knows he is face-to-face with a fiend…Or, he may have the idea of a monstrous hag squatted upon his breast—mute, motionless and malignant…whose intolerable weight crushes the breath out of his body.”—Robert Macnish, The Philosophy of Sleep, 1834

Is It a Practical Guide on Dealing With Sleep Paralysis?

Despite such weighted historical examples, the author doesn’t distill the information into one cohesive piece that can be described through the evaluation of a total theme. Therefore, even though the accounts she has uncovered are intriguing, they lack any bearing on discovery in and of themselves. The reader could possibly be left with a much better historical understanding of sleep paralysis or a waking nightmare but little information on how to deal with it.

A Little to Much on the Etymology of Sleep Paralysis

Regarding what the author is attempting to provide in her book, from the beginning she goes a long way toward attempting to prove her views with the use of language. Initially, this seemed intriguing enough but shortly afterward she spends a huge portion of time on etymology to the point that the text comes across as pseudo-intellectual and exhaustive. The employ of terminology is relevant for a time, but to go to such lengths without real cohesion or focus weighs the book down considerably.

Internet Posts and Cross-cultural Examples

Once the author crawls out of those pages and begins to focus on the topic in a broader sense, she utilizes an array of internet posts from random individuals mixed with cross-cultural examples in order provide information on the subject. This again presents an air of presumption, disregarding a more studied application and in turn obfuscating the author’s authority.

Hmong and Possible Hereditary Aspects

Outside of the book not providing any novel or contemporary insight regarding the nature of the subject, her study on the Hmong was interesting. Her view on the possible hereditary aspects of sudden death due to nightmares and visions after arriving in the United States was a well-established read that deserves further research beyond what she’s written. Despite the secularist view, an approach to the perceived spiritual nature of such attacks on an entire grouping of people would be a study of great interest even though the decline in these occurrences may prove to be too impactful on the possible accrual of appropriate data.

Coping Mechanisms and the Lack of People Coming Forth

By the end of this book on sleep paralysis demons, nightmares, and visions there is the conclusion that exposes the regrettable reality of learning more about this subject through a scholastic means. She admits that all too many individuals don’t come forward with their information, leaving the medical industry to primarily focus on coping mechanisms instead of delving into the realities that may be causing sleep paralysis issues in so many people across the globe.

She ends her book with a bare and truthful statement that wraps her sleep paralysis and nightmare research up succinctly:

“After enduring for more than five thousand years, there is no indication that the nightmare will ever loosen its tenacious grip. This phenomenon that has afflicted human beings and plagued our sleep from earliest antiquity until the present day is not only a part of our heritage, but it is, apparently, a permanent companion. The nightmare—a link between our biological and cultural selves—will persist.”—Professor Shelley R. Adler

2. Sleep Paralysis: A Guide to Hypnagogic Visions

For any individual seeking in-depth instructions and insight regarding the fascinating subject of sleep paralysis, the book Sleep Paralysis: A Guide to Hypnagogic Visions & Visitors of the Night goes a long way toward providing answers that have eluded us for centuries. The author has attempted to provide new information on all aspects of sleep paralysis from the experience of entities all the way to techniques that can enhance our lucid dreaming abilities.

Even though the material lacks any new or novel evidence, the author does his best to illuminate the multiple facets of this fascinating subject. The result is a well-written guide that attempts to provide answers to the most prevalent questions. He does this while also making sure to instruct on the best means possible for having your own visions, dreams, and out of body experiences as well.

A Large Population of the World Is Unaware?

From the beginning, the book states that 40% of the world’s population has experienced the results of sleep paralysis and its constituents. Given such a large number, it is surprising that few people are familiar with the effects of this phenomenon. The author himself describes his experiences in detail, leaving out none of the esoteric experiences and laying bare his horrors for everyone to read. After doing so, he decides to lay the general aspects of the book out into three digestible arenas. They are:

  • Coping with Sleep Paralysis
  • Confronting Apparitions
  • Thriving with Sleep Paralysis

Reducing the Experiences

The first part, Coping with Sleep Paralysis, is a well laid out and succinct guide for reducing and removing your experiences with sleep paralysis. It provides actionable and logical tools for removing it from your life. The entirety of this part was refreshing and filled with real-world steps that can lead to having control over the experiences for the rest of your life. He describes everything one needs to know and even details the exact reasons and symptoms for its occurrence.

One of the titles, “How to Break Sleep Paralysis Tonight”, describes multiple steps that will immediately halt the problem. From that point, he also provides a means of stopping recurring sleep paralysis throughout the night with vivid procedures that are viable and easy to follow.

Confronting Apparitions During Sleep Paralysis

The area on confronting apparitions is very intriguing and the historical accounts only add to the validity of their presence in many people’s lives. While the author, just as those before him, cannot really provide a grounded explanation for their presence, he does attempt to give sincere information on how to deal with the problem. “The Stages of the Stranger”, for example, provides four means of dealing with an entity depending on its incarnation.

These actions go a long way toward removing or even accepting the being that you see. In one scene the author actually shows how he accepts the being, only to have a beneficial and healing experience once he decided to release fear and accept what was occurring. From aliens and angels to visitations from the dead, this chapter shows all the varying encounters you may have while comforting you with the knowledge that can bring sense to why you experience them.

A Blessing in Disguise?

In the third part of the book, the author suggests that you can not only remove or control Sleep Paralysis, but you can also thrive with it. He states that it can be a blessing in disguise that can provide powerful wisdom and visions for those adventurous enough to commit and dive into their own psycho to confront psychological issues.

Here he discusses how to have out of body experiences and lucid dreams while actually giving procedures for how to achieve sleep paralysis; the very thing that some people perhaps have bought the book in order to alleviate themselves of. The mental practices he suggests are short and could have used more depth and insight. He provides a small list of supplements as well, but doesn’t provide dosage information; something that would be necessary for anyone attempting to use them.

Overall the induction techniques and suggestions are lacking but they at least supply a primer for anyone attempting to further their experience with sleep paralysis.

As a tool for overcoming sleep paralysis and understanding its history, this book by Ryan Hurd is highly recommended reading. It is easy to digest and can go a long way toward offering the necessary tools for overcoming sleep paralysis in your life.

The descriptions of entities, demons and the things (visions or hallucinations) we often see during this time are intriguing while the techniques used for dealing with the matter can be quite helpful for those that suffer from such a problem.

Yet, the instructions for utilizing sleep paralysis for various enjoyable occurrences are overall lacking. If you are able to find material that can accentuate the final part of the book, you’ll go a long way toward knowing all the details necessary regarding this mystifying subject.

The book as a whole, despite a few limitations, is still a valuable read for anyone wanting to know more about sleep paralysis, hypnogogic visions, and the strange visitations many see during the night.

Finals Remarks on Sleep Paralysis Demons and Visions

Knowing that the brain is generating these sensations provides little relief to those who experience them regularly. No one knows what you are afraid of better than yourself, and sleep paralysis demons (or however it manifests itself) are often a reflection of those deep-seated fears. Some people may believe they actually have supernatural experiences, but try to remember that the mind is the greatest trickster and showman of all.

They may all be supernatural experiences or they may simply be the brain manifesting a communal fear across thousands of years, across thousands of miles. Especially the visions and hallucinations seem to be very personal and related to the person's psyche, traumas and beliefs instilled during his or her lifetime.

We hope we provided you with some valuable information on sleep paralysis demons and other creatures to help you through those possible scary episodes. Staying grounded and not believing everything your mind can conjure will go a long way in keeping your sanity.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and does not substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, and/or dietary advice from a licensed health professional. Drugs, supplements, and natural remedies may have dangerous side effects. If pregnant or nursing, consult with a qualified provider on an individual basis. Seek immediate help if you are experiencing a medical emergency.

© 2016 Sam Shepards

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Moral Man 

      2 weeks ago

      The nightmares continue. Vile, gross, disgusting, repulsive degenerate scenes I see in these horrible dreams. Its got to be demonic or sent by the Devil himself to torment me.

      The Fundamentalist, theistic concept of God doesn't make sense in a world filled with Moral evil/Human evil, Natural evil, and Supernatural evil. It doesn't make sense for a God who is supposedly all good, all mighty, all wise, loving, merciful, sovereign, etc to create and allow eons of suffering, death, and evil. Its a deity with a Jekyll and Hyde personality we worship. See the term Dystheism which makes a lot more sense than Theism. God cannot be all the fantastic and wonderful things that they say He is. Dualism also makes a lot more sense in that God is weak and powerless against evil. If God Bates sin and evil so much then why did He create, cause, or allow Natural evils such as centipedes, jellyfish, stonefish, ticks, mosquitoes, cancer, Ebola, stroke, aneurysm, etc, etc? Isn't creating and allowing such horrors as cancer sinful and evil? Isn't torturing and killing your creation sinful and evil? Isn't cruelty sinful and evil? What about birth defects and miscarriages? Abortion is said to be sinful and evil but its ok and acceptable when Nature does the killing with its miscarriages, diseases, and starvation? This is blatant utter hypocrisy and doesn't make sense. If I feel that cancer and other Natural evils is cruel, immoral, and wrong, then why doesn't God feel this way? Maybe God or the creator is partly evil, insane, indifferent, uncaring, unintelligent, immoral, amoral, mentally blind, morally blind. Or maybe He is weak and powerless.

      Satan doesn't make sense either because if Satan is the personification of evil and is the source of all evil, then how is it that Satan or w demon claimed that he isn't responsible for creating Natural evils such as centipedes? If Satan likes murder, killing, and death in human beings, then how is it that he doesn't like Natural evils? This also doesn't make sense. So it seems Satan isn't totally evil and God isn't totally good, and neither of these two deities makes sense when you believe Theistic teachings. Maybe we have been taught wrong all this time, and maybe both God and Satan have both good and evil in them. They both have a Jekyll and Hyde personality. We need to start integrating and include evil as one of God's attributes. "I make peace and create evil." That's God speaking in Isahaia chapter 45, verse 7 in the King James Bible. The clergy and churchmen ignore these verses or try to explain it away and justify it. Both God and Satan are horrible deities in my opinion.

    • Sam Shepards profile imageAUTHOR

      Sam Shepards 

      2 months ago from Europe

      @Moral Man

      Don't be too hard on yourself. Don't judge yourself too hard. Just try to stay grounded in life. I would not seek too much in the visions meaning outside of your own mind. The dreams and hallucinations are symbolism for your own psychological state and fears. You really have to wonder what is there to fear? The harder you make divides between good and bad, beautiful and ugly the harsher you are punishing your own psyche.

      When unsure, talk to a therapist and try to uncover the mess that is the human psyche there. It never is pretty, but stacking up on excessive meaning from visions will not help. Cleaning that up and dropping unnecessary baggage will make life a lot lighter.

      I added two sleep paralysis book recommendations that could help you with making sense of things, especially the second book can be practical.

    • profile image

      Moral Man 

      3 months ago

      Just last night I had another horrifying nightmare. I see my deceased loved ones and as I go to hug them, they speak kindly but in a matter of seconds, they physically transformed into demonic monsters and they told me, "Welcome. We're going to hell." This is very very disturbing. What am I to make of this? Did my deceased loved ones(parents) transform into demons and are they going to end up in the bad place where fire burns forever? Please say it isn't so. This is too horrific to even contemplate. I'm going to end up in a mental hospital from fear. The thought of either one or both parents being unsaved and spending eternity being tortured forever is insupportable. I cannot accept this. Why would God allow this?

      The other possibility is that what I saw was not really my beloved parent but a demon in disguise. Demons can take the appearance and simulate the voices of human beings to confuse us. Remember the scene in the movie The Exorcist when the demon possessed girl transforms herself into the dead mother of priest Father Karras to confuse and torment him. But why would God allow this?

      I have been plagued by nightmares for 28 and a half years. I fear that I will end up in hell and I fear that my beloved parents will end up in hell. I cannot accept this. Never. I live in endless fear.

    • profile image

      Moral Man 

      16 months ago

      I have experienced paranormal phenomena since 1986. It started with out of body experiences while sleeping, and one day in April 2004, while sleeping, I had an out of body experience which was interrupted by a bunch of voices saying in unison, "You are no longer in control." I asked the voices who they were and they replied, "Spirits." Ok, but they refused to tell me what kind of spirits they were. Were they human or non-human? Were they aliens? Were they demons? Were they the spirits of people still living, or were they the spirits of dead people?

      I continued to hear voices on and off while sleeping since 2004. This would be called Clairaudience and is a form of telepathy. On two separate occasions in 2005, the voices became Satanic/demonic in nature and motivation. On one occasion while sleeping, a bunch of voices shouted in unison, "You belong to Satan." On another occasion, while sleeping, a single male voice said that he was a friend or fan of Anton Lavey, the 20th century Satanist, and mentioned the year 1960. These were horrifying, as these voices tried to ensnare me over to Satanism. Its never going to work. I tell them to leave.

      In May 2014, while sleeping, I see the word Saturn and a single voice appears. The voice informed me that Saturn is another name for Satan. Now the issue of Natural evil and Human evil/sin has plagued me for years and has been a threat to my Christian faith. One of the biggest questions I have is: who or what created Natural evils such as centipedes, scorpions, mosquitoes, jellyfish, violin spiders, cancer, stroke, aneurysm, heart disease, ticks, fleas, tooth decay, hurricanes, tsunamis,etc? These horrible examples of Nature are all monstrous, inhuman cruelties causing suffering and death. So I asked the voice if Satan/Saturn had anything to do with these Natural evils. I asked, "Did Satan create centipedes?" The voice replied "No." I asked, "Does Satan enjoy such things as centipedes?" It replied, "Certainly not." I asked, "Who created centipedes?" It replied,"No one." It then proceeded to tell me I'm witnessing something grand. We got cut off before I could ask more questions.

      I believe this experience to be genuinely supernatural because the voice told me something I didn't know up to that point. I didn't know until the voice informed me that Satan and Saturn are the same being. Its also surprising that the voice said that Satan had nothing to do with creating centipedes and in fact doesn't even like centipedes. The voice almost made it sound like Satan is a good guy and there was nothing to be scared of. Yeah right. Was it lying so as not to scare me and to lower my guard?

      So if Satan didn't create centipedes and if God didn't create centipedes, then no one created it. Thats another way of saying that evolution and the blind, impersonal amoral forces of Nature created these horrible venomous pests which have bites that cause agonizing pain and serious sickness. That means there's no Satan to blame, no Devil to blame, and no God to blame for the existence of centipedes. What's very puzzling to me is that if Satan is the personification of all evil and who enjoys murderer, torture, death,and sacrifices, then why would he not like centipedes? After all, centipedes are evil, horrible, repulsive, Devilish critters. I would imagine a purely evil Devil would love something as horrible as centipedes, and yet, the voice told me that Satan doesn't like these horrible critters. How could that be? It just doesn't make sense to me why a purely evil Satan/Devil wouldn't like centipedes just as it doesn't make sense to me why an all good God would create such a horrible, evil, dangerous disgusting animal as a centipede. Maybe Satan isn't purely evil, and maybe God isn't all good. Who knows? I'm still speculating.

      In December 2014, while sleeping, a single voice told me, "You're brilliant. We can use you. Deep down inside, you want me. Let me into you." I knew it was another Satanic/demonic voice. I told him to go away. It got angry and made a threat to me by saying, "Just wait until you die." That is scary. What is it going to do to me when I die? Does it think I'm headed to hell?

      A week ago, in May 2018, while sleeping, I had some kind of attack and knew it was Satanic/demonic in nature. A voice said, "You knew it was me." I replied, "I can sense evil." It seems these voices are able to read minds up to a point. I asked once again if Satan created Natural evils and it said no and then told me to get treatment for phobias! Very strange thing to say for a purely evil being. I sensed the voice to be both evil and with a little bit of good. It seemed to have a Jekyll and Hyde personality. I told the voice that even if Satan had nothing to do with creating centipedes, he could still be evil, cruel, and dangerous in other ways such as forcing his worshippers to conduct killings and sacrifices, and damning people to be tortured forever in hell.

      I have also had poltergeist experiences where my shirt was pulled on one occasion as I woke up, and on another occasion while waking up my blanket was pulled off me. So I live in fear.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)