Something We must Know about Hypertension & Diabetes
Today’s world is advanced with so many things especially technology, the world’s population has also increased according to World Population Clock Statistics; 6.8 billion people in year 2010 compared to 6.1 billion people in year 2000 which means there is an increase of 0.7 billion people in 10 years’ time, due to technological improvement, there is a modernization to peoples lifestyles; they sit and work more in the offices then in paddy fields, living in the urban lifestyle and driving luxurious cars rather than cycling or walking from office to home, so this creates a problem of less physical activities and thus, the rate of health problems around the world is also increased now in our current time. Amongst the health problems, there are a few that people around the globe are suffering from; hypertension and diabetes.
Also known as the “silent killer”. Hypertension means increased in blood pressure (pressure exerted on the wall of arteries) is above the normal values. There are two kinds of hypertension; the primary hypertension (90–95% of cases), which refers to high blood pressure where no physiological cause can be found. The remaining 5–10% of cases is secondary hypertension which is caused by other problems involving the kidneys, heart, arteries, or endocrine system (hormonal). The values for blood pressure measured based on systolic and diastolic;
Normal: 90–119 / 60–79 (mmHg)
Prehypertension: 120–139 / 80–89 (mmHg)
Stage 1: 140–159 / 90–99 (mmHg)
Stage 2: ≥160 / ≥100 (mmHg)
Causes for hypertension are; pregnancy, smoking, stress, alcohol, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, increased salt (sodium) concentration in blood, and sometimes genetics. This condition is extremely dangerous when it is critical to the patient; it increases the chance of having brain stroke, myocardial infarction (heart attack), heart failure and aneurysm (blood balloon in the arteries), and possibility of chronic kidney failure. Common symptoms are headache, drowsiness, and nausea experienced by the patient. Besides all these, there are other physiological causes for hypertension; the kidney has problem excreting sodium, increased renin-angiotensin system which causes vasoconstriction and sympathetic activation when that person feels anxious. Measuring blood pressure is done by using a sphygmomanometer, where it is placed around a person’s arm and it is inflated.
Diabetes Mellitus is a disorder which results in increased blood glucose level and excreting sweet urine (glycosuria). Definition of diabetes by WHO: “Diabetes is a chronic disease, which occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. This leads to an increased concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycaemia).” Even though the blood has excess glucose, but the cells are not receiving it (hypoglycaemia in body cells), this is Diabetes. Insulin is a vital hormone where it converts excess glucose into glycogen; which is a form of glucose storage in the liver and is involved in glucose uptake in muscles. If the patient suffers from high blood glucose level, it can increase the risk of heart attacks, strokes, amputation, and kidney failure. Symptoms are; increased production of urine (polyuria), increased thirst (polydipsia), and increased hunger (polyphagia) Diabetes can be measured using the blood glucose test.
Type I Diabetes
Known as IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), where the pancreas is affected. Having defect to the Beta-cells in Islet of Langerhans in the pancreas will decrease the formation of insulin. Reason for type I diabetes is mainly by the destruction of the Beta-cells by autoimmune reaction, environmental factors, or through genetics, other reason may be of diet, most common in children.
Type II Diabetes
Known as Non-IDDM (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus), where the pancreas is working fine and insulin is produced as normal, but the cells are not receiving any glucose, because there is a defect to the insulin receptors (insulin resistant). Reason for type II diabetes is mainly by the environmental factors or through genetics, but not autoimmune reaction. There is another variation which is known as gestational diabetes mellitus involving a combination of insufficient insulin secretion and responsiveness. Occurs in most pregnancies and may recover or worsen after delivery. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy as it can harm the health of both the mother and her child, most common in adults.
Not too severe compared to diabetes mellitus, the patient suffers dehydration as he suffers polyuria and thus polydipsia, excreting severely diluted urine. The cause is insensitivity of Vasopressin a type of anti-diuretic hormone in the kidneys and in some case, the deficiency of Vasopressin.