ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

Strongyloidiasis: Morphology And Life Cycle, Clinical Features, Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention

Updated on April 1, 2014

How Can We Detect Strongyloidiasis

Source

Strongyloidiasis

Strongyloidosis is infection of the small intestine by Strongyloides stercoralis. Adult females are small measuring 2 mm in length. They live in the mucosa of the duodenum and lay eggs.

Life Cycle: The eggs are laid inside the mucous membrane. Soon the eggs hatch and the rhabditiform larvae enter the intestinal lumen by breaking the mucosa. These larvae are seen in fresh stools and their spring-like movement is diagnostic. Strongyloides stercoralis is known to take one of three life cycles.

  1. In the soil: They develop into infective filariform stage within three to four days. The larvae penetrate human skin to enter the blood vessels. An alternate mode of infection is accidental ingestion of infective larvae. They pass through the lungs and after a period of development, they are coughed up and swallowed. In the small intestine, they mature and copulate. Fertilized female burrows into the mucosa of the jejunum while the males are excreted in feces. Lifespan of the worm is not clearly known.
  2. Free-living cycle: Strongyloides stercoralis can develop as free living worms in the soil. The rhabditiform larvae in the soil may develop into free living adults, which reproduce in the soil independent of the human host. Under favourable conditions, the free-living larvae can change into filariform larvase which can enter the human skin and initiate a new cycle.
  3. Auto-infection: By this lifecycle, the worm perpetuates itself without leaving the host. The rhabditiform larvae change into filariform larvase in the large intestine or in the perianal skin. The latter penetrate the mucosa or skin to enter venules and reach the pulmonary circulation and develop further. In this way, the infection can persist in an individual for long periods even after leaving the endemic area.

How Strongyloidiasis Manifests On The Skin

Source

Clinical Manifestations Of Strongyloidiasis

Clinical symptoms depend on the severity of infection and reactivity of the host. Mild infections may be asymptomatic.

Larval migration: Local allergy and infection may appear at the site of penetration by the larvae. The progress of the larvae through the skin and subcutaneous tissue may produce linear streaks of urticaria which progress at the rate of a few centimeters in an hour. Crops of these urticarial lesions recur for considerable periods. These are termed larva curens since they migrate fast. The pulmonary phase of the larvae may be associated with cough, fever, breathlessness and asthmatic symptoms. Hemoptysis may occur rarely.

Features attributed to the adult worm: Heavy infection may cause epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. When the worm load is very heavy, symptoms of enterocolitis develop. Meningeal irritation is seen in a few cases.

How To Diagnose And Treat Strongyloidiasis

Source

Diagnosis, Treatment And Prevention

Diagnosis: It is established by demonstrating the larvae or adult worms. Larvae can be demonstrated in fresh fecal samples. The larvae may be detected in the sputum during the pulmonary phase of migration. Accidentally, the duodenal aspirate may reveal the larvase and intestinal biopsy may bring out the adult worm. Transient mild eosinophilia is common.

Treatment: Once the infection is diagnosed, treatment must be given, irrespective of the symptoms. The drug of choice is thiabendazole which is available as tablets or syspension to be administered orally in a dose of 25 mg/Kg twice a day for 3 days. Thiabendazole is generally safe, but vomiting and vertigo may occur at times which are self-limiting. Clearance of the worms occurs in over 80% of cases. Repetition of the drug after 3 months may be necessary if the larvae are demonstrable in feces or allergic manifestations persist. Pruritus can be relieved by antihistamines.

Prevention: The general principles mentioned in the case of hookworms are applicable in the case of strongyloides, but treatment has to be repeated to eradicate the infection due to the phenomenon of auto-infection.

© 2014 Funom Theophilus Makama

Comments

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    No comments yet.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, hubpages.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://hubpages.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)