ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Hierarchy of Needs; Abraham Maslow

Updated on October 30, 2013

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow described his hierarchy of basic needs as "conative," meaning we naturally strive towards them and they are motivational in turn providing for a synergism that might eventually lead to a level of personal development he described as self-actualization.

Each level of this five step hierarchy has prepotency over the levels above it meaning that a need is not pursued until the need below it is met. The most basic needs are Physiological including those things that allow organisms to maintain homeostasis such as food, water, and shelter. On the second level are safety needs. These pertain to a sense of psychical security, stability, and dependability of environment. In countries barraged with war and terrorism where people feel continually unsafe they will not aspire past this tier. The third level is the need for love and to belong. This includes the desire for friends, intimacy, and group cohesion. Beyond this, esteem-needs provoke a desire to display competence, confidence, and self-respect to those around you. The fifth and final level are self-actualized needs.


After esteem needs are met only a few people continue on to the last level of self-actualization. This stage represents the fulfillment of one's own personal potential and a drive to live within the world creatively. The vast majority of people will not self-actualize as Maslow discovered and this spurred his study into what set self-actualizers apart from non self-actualizers,

His conclusion which he explored in his works in the 1960s was that people who embraced what he called the, "B-values," would make this final stage in personal development.

These values are; truth, beauty, justice, autonomy, truth, completion, perfection, uniqueness, aliveness, wholeness, goodness, humor, effortlessness, totality, and simplicity.

The common characteristics of people who hold these, "B-values," closest include; a more efficient perception of reality; acceptance of self, other, and nature; spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness; problem-centering (concern with societal and global problems); need for privacy; autonomy; continued freshness of appreciation (for the basic beauties found in the mundane);gemeinschaftgefuhl (social interest); profound interpersonal relations; the democratic character structure; appreciation of means versus ends; Philosophical sense of humor; creativeness; and resistance to acculturation (a transcendence of their particular culture toward universal ideals). He hypothesized that self-actualizers constitute the psychologically healthiest 1% of the population.

He explained the phenomena of, "peak-experiences," as numinous, mystical experiences that could not be intentionally induced but were felt to at least some degree by most of the population and were often brought on by aesthetics, grave tribulation, aggregate wisdom, or a sense of universal unity. These experiences were comprised of a sense of wonder or awe and characterized by a loss of anxiety and conflict and an increase in the capacity to love, unconditionally accept, and engage in pure spontaneity. Only a small percent of people would fully engage with this experience so as to be permanently altered and actualized by it.


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • profile image

      Sam Cannon 

      5 years ago

      Try keeping all else equal and turning Maslow's "famous triangle" upside down. See if it doesn't make more sense this way.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)