ArtsAutosBooksBusinessEducationEntertainmentFamilyFashionFoodGamesGenderHealthHolidaysHomeHubPagesPersonal FinancePetsPoliticsReligionSportsTechnologyTravel

The Use and Hazards of Bispheol-A

Updated on May 1, 2012

What is BPA and where is it found?

Bisphenol-A (BPA), is an organic compound commonly used in the manufacture of plastics and epoxy resins, and is widely used in food packaging. This extensive use causes human exposure that may result in adverse health effects. The possible human health effects have been the subject of research, resulting in its classification as a possible health hazard in some countries, with limitations or outright bans on its use. The conclusion drawn from the analysis of the websites,,,,, and is that human health may be impacted by exposure to BPA, but owing to the extensive use of the material and attendant cost of developing alternative compounds, further investigation is needed to determine the necessity for restricting or banning its use. The human consumption of food-related products containing BPA should be avoided where feasible, especially by sensitive groups, such as children and pregnant women.

BPA is used as a raw material in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, including food packaging, baby bottles, and thermal receipt paper backing, and thus is nearly ubiquitous in the environment. US EPA estimates that more than one million pounds of BPA per year is released the environment1. The compound is resistant to extreme temperature, acidity, and BPA may contribute to increased food safety due to its ability to inhibit bacterial and fungal growth. The US EPA has issued an Action Plan for BPA which includes an effort to develop alternatives to the compound in non-food manufacturing applications2. Alternatives to BPA in food related products include stainless steel, aluminum, other synthetic materials and glass. Consumer sentiment has resulted in removal of BPA from items commonly used by infants and children under five years of age, such as formula bottles and sippy cups. Canada, China, and the European Union have banned its use, and some US states and cities have attempted to ban the use in containers used by children6.

How we are exposed

The primary exposure route for BPA in humans is ingestion of BPA leached from polycarbonate containers and liners. Controversy regarding quantification of human exposure quantities is evident. Studies found on the websites, and showed the estimated exposure ranged from less than 0.12 µg/kg body weight per day3, to less than 4.12 µg/kg body weight per day4. Acceptable level of exposure to BPA by the US EPA has been determined to be 50000 µg/kg body weight per day5, which is significantly higher than exposure levels found in the studies reviewed.

Owing to its use in everyday products, BPA has been found in 95% of test subjects6. BPA has been shown to have toxic effects in animal studies and may mimic the effects of estrogen in the human body6. However, questions remain n concerning the actual impact on humans and the environment. Toxicity studies have shown that BPA levels commonly found in humans to be below accepted safe levels. Conversely, different studies show that low-doses may adversely affect human health5.

Should we ban BPA?

Based on a review of available data, the conclusion may be made that the use of BPA may have the potential for adverse health effects in humans and should be avoided in products used by children and pregnant women. The studies reviewed show that there may be a correlation between BPA exposure from food stored in BPA-containing packaging and adverse health effects, however, questions remain regarding the dose-response relationship, and a causal relationship should not be inferred due to lurking variables, such as genetic predisposition, characteristics of the food stored, and lifestyle differences. Moreover, the complete ban on use would add significant cost to production of products in everyday use. Additional study is needed before a complete ban on the use of BPA.


1. EPA Seeks Comments on BPA Testing at

Institution: American Industrial Hygiene Association

2. BPA Alternatives in Thermal Paper Partnership at

Institution: US Environmental Protection Agency

3. Human Health and Safety at

Institution: American Chemistry Council

4. US Department of Health and Human Services Memorandum Dated June 2, 2008 at

Institution: US FDA

5. Bisphenol A Action Plan Summary at

Institution: US EPA

6. Avoid Bisphenol A in Bottles and Cans at



    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • Stephanie Henkel profile image

      Stephanie Henkel 

      6 years ago from USA

      While I agree that BPA is a serious health hazard, I believe that it has been banned for use in baby bottles in Canada and that chemical manufacturers no longer sell the chemical to manufacturers of baby bottles world wide. It would be wise to know if it's used in the plastic you drink out of, though!


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)